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About The AuthorNow writing under the pen-name of HARUN

YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956. Hav-ing completed his primary and secondary education inAnkara, he studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan Univer-sity and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific,and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the

author of important works disclosing the imposture of evo-lutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between

Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and com-munism.

Harun Yahya's works, translated into 63 different lan-guages, constitute a collection for a total of more than 45,000pages with 30,000 illustrations.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron)and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophetswho fought against their peoples' lack of faith. The Prophet'sseal on his books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their con-tents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and theProphet Muhammad (saas), last of the prophets. Under the guid-ance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet[saas]), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each funda-

mental tenet of irreligious ideologies and to have the "lastword," so as to completely silence the objections raised

against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet(saas), who attained ultimate wisdom and moral

perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer thelast word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one singlegoal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encour-age readers to consider basic faith-related is-sues such as Allah's existence and unity andthe Hereafter; and to expose irreligious sys-tems' feeble foundations and perverted ide-

ologies. Harun Yahya enjoys a widereadership in many countries,

from India to America,England to In-

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donesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria andRussia. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian,Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken inMauritius), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, Indone-sian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental inmany people recovering faith in Allah and gaining deeper insights into their faith.His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to under-stand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider thesebooks, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or material-istic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definiteresults, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimen-tal insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations.All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to thebooks written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author mod-estly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for Allah's right path. No ma-terial gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and heartsand guide them to become more devoted servants of Allah, render an invaluable ser-vice.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other booksthat create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological confusion, andthat clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people'shearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devisedto emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving peoplefrom loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily seethat the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminatethe Qur'an's moral values. The success and impact of this service are manifested inthe readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty,conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideologicalprevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbe-lief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that peoplecan live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spi-ral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speed-ily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By the will ofAllah, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first centurywill attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.

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A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolutionbecause this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philoso-

phies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation-and therefore,Allah's existence-over the last 150 years it has caused many people toabandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative ser-vice, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a de-

ception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read onlyone of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to sum-

marize this subject. All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anicverses, and invite readers to learn Allah's words and to live by them.All the subjects concerning Allah's verses are explained so as to leaveno doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sin-cere, plain, and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and

from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to theireffective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even thosewho rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these

books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents. This and all the other books by the author can be read individually,or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books willfind discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and

experiences to one another. In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the pub-lication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure ofAllah. The author's books are all extremely convincing. For this rea-son, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective

methods is encouraging them to read these books.We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other booksat the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related is-

sues is very useful, and a pleasure to read. In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the au-

thor's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, stylesthat are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred sub-jects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the

mind and deviations in the heart.

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The Scientific Collapse ofDarwinism and Its

Ideological Background


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SPECIAL PREFACE: The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism:

Darwinism and Materialism ....................................................................14

Introduction ................................................................................................14

The Darwinist Lie: 'Life is conflict'..............................................................14

Darwin's Source of Inspiration: Malthus's Theory of Ruthlessness...........16

What 'The Law of the Jungle' Led to: Fascism .........................................17

The Bloody Alliance: Darwinism and Communism....................................18

Darwinism and Terrorism ..........................................................................19

ISLAM IS THE SOLUTION OF TERRORISM ..................................................21

Islam is a Religion of Peace and Well-Being ............................................21

Allah Has Condemned Wickedness ..........................................................22

Islam Defends Being Understanding and Freedom of Speech .................22

Allah Has Made the Killing of Innocent People Unlawful ..........................23

Allah Commands Believers to be Compassionate and Merciful ...............24

Allah Has Commanded Being Understanding and Forgiveness ...............25

Conclusion .................................................................................................26

INTRODUCTION: Why the Theory of Evolution?.....................................27

FOREWORD: A Great Miracle of Our Times: Belief in the

Evolution Deceit..................................................................30

CHAPTER 1: To Be Freed From Prejudice...............................................34

Blind Materialism .......................................................................................36

Mass Evolutionist Indoctrination ................................................................38

CHAPTER 2: A Brief History of the Theory..............................................41

Darwin's Imagination .................................................................................42

Darwin's Racism ........................................................................................44

The Desperate Efforts of Neo-Darwinism..................................................45

Trial and Error: Punctuated Equilibrium ....................................................48

The Primitive Level of Science in Darwin's Time ......................................47

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CHAPTER 3: Imaginary Mechanisms of Evolution..................................52

Natural Selection .......................................................................................52

"Industrial Melanism" .................................................................................53

Why Natural Selection Cannot Explain Complexity?.................................55

Mutations ...................................................................................................57

CHAPTER 4: The Fossil Record Refutes Evolution ................................61

Life Emerged on Earth Suddenly and in Complex Forms.........................66

Molecular Comparisons Deepen Evolution's Cambrian Impasse .............69

CHAPTER 5: Tale of Transition from Water to Land...............................71

Why Transition From Water to Land is Impossible ...................................74

CHAPTER 6: The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals .............76

Bird Feathers: The Structure that Evolution Fails to Explain ....................78

Another Alleged Transitional Form: Archæopteryx ...................................79

Speculations of Evolutionists: The Teeth and Claws of Archæopteryx.....81

Archæopteryx and Other Bird Fossils .......................................................82

What is the Origin of Flies? .......................................................................84

The Imaginary Bird-Dinosaur Link .............................................................85

The Origin of Mammals .............................................................................86

The Myth of Horse Evolution .....................................................................88

CHAPTER 7: Evolutionists’ Biased and Deceptive

Fossil Interpretations .................................................................................90

Imaginary and Deceptive Drawings...........................................................91

CHAPTER 8: Evolution Forgeries .............................................................93

Piltdown Man: An Orangutan Jaw and a Human Skull! ............................93

Nebraska Man: A Pig's Tooth....................................................................95

Ota Benga: The African In The Cage........................................................96

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CHAPTER 9: The Scenario of Human Evolution .....................................98

The Imaginary Family Tree of Man ...........................................................99

Australopithecus: An Ape Species ..........................................................101

hom*o Habilis: The Ape that was Presented as Human..........................102

hom*o Rudolfensis: The Face Wrongly Joined ........................................107

hom*o Erectus: A Real Human Race.......................................................110

hom*o Erectus and Thereafter: Human Beings .......................................111

Neanderthals ...........................................................................................114

hom*o Sapiens Archaic, hom*o Heilderbergensis and Cro-Magnon Man116

Species Living in the Same Age as Their Ancestors ..............................117

The Secret History of hom*o Sapiens ......................................................118

A Hut 1.7 Million Years Old .....................................................................120

Footprints of Today’s Man, 3.6 Million Years Old! ..................................120

The Bipedalism Impasse of Evolution .....................................................123

Evolution: An Unscientific Faith ...............................................................125

CHAPTER 10: The Molecular Impasse of Evolution .............................128

The Tale of the "Cell Produced by Chance"............................................128

Confessions from Evolutionists ...............................................................130

The Miracle in the Cell and the End of Evolution ....................................131

Proteins Challenge Chance.....................................................................133

Left-handed Proteins ...............................................................................137

Correct Bond is Vital................................................................................139

Zero Probability........................................................................................140

The Probability of a Protein Being Formed by Chance is Zero...............142

Is There a Trial and Error Mechanism in Nature?...................................143

The Evolutionary Fuss About the Origin of Life.......................................144

Miller's Experiment ..................................................................................146

Miller's Experiment was Nothing but Make-believe.................................146

Latest Evolutionist Sources Dispute Miller's Experiment ........................147

Primordial World Atmosphere and Proteins ............................................150

Protein Synthesis is not Possible in Water..............................................151

Another Desperate Effort: Fox's Experiment ...........................................152

Inanimate Matter Cannot Generate Life ..................................................153

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The Miraculous Molecule: DNA...............................................................154

Why Cannot DNA Come into Being by Chance? ....................................156

Confessions From Evolutionists ..............................................................158

Another Evolutionist Vain Attempt: "The RNA World" .............................159

Life is a Concept Beyond Mere Heaps of Molecules ..............................162

CHAPTER 11: Thermodynamics Falsifies Evolution ............................164

The Myth of the "Open System" ..............................................................166

The Myth of the "Self Organization of Matter".........................................167

CHAPTER 12: Order Cannot Be Accounted for by Coincidence.........170

Darwinian Formula!..................................................................................172

Technology In The Eye and The Ear ......................................................174

The Theory of Evolution is the Most Potent Spell in the World...............178

CHAPTER 13: Why Evolutionists’ Claims Are Invalid? ........................182

Variations and Species............................................................................182

Antibiotic Resistance and DDT Immunity are not Evidence for Evolution ................................................................185

The Fallacy of Vestigial Organs ..............................................................189

The Myth of hom*ology ............................................................................191

Similar Organs in Entirely Different Living Species.................................191

The Genetic and Embryological Impasse of hom*ology ..........................195

Invalidity of the Claim of Molecular hom*ology ........................................196

The Collapse of the “Tree of Life” ...........................................................197

The Myth of Embryological Recapitulation ..............................................199

CHAPTER 14: The Theory of Evolution: A Materialistic Liability ........202

Materialist Confessions............................................................................205

The Scientific Death of Materialism.........................................................207

CHAPTER 15: Media: An Oxygen Tent for the Theory of Evolution ...210

Wrapped-up Lies .....................................................................................212

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CHAPTER 16: Conclusion: Evolution Is a Deceit..................................214

The Theory of Evolution has Collapsed ..................................................214

Evolution Can Not Be Verified in the Future Either.................................215

The Biggest Obstacle to Evolution: Soul .................................................215

Allah Creates According to His Will.........................................................216

CHAPTER 17: The Fact of Creation ........................................................218

Honey Bees and the Architectural Wonders of Honeycombs .................218

Amazing Architects: Termites..................................................................220

The Woodpecker .....................................................................................220

The Sonar System of Bats ......................................................................221


The Creation Miracles in the Gnat...........................................................222

Hunting Birds with Keen Eyesight ...........................................................223

The Thread of the Spider ........................................................................223

Hibernating Animals.................................................................................224

Electrical Fish ..........................................................................................225

A Perfect Plan on Animals: Camouflage ................................................225


Different Vision Systems .........................................................................227

Special Freezing System.........................................................................228

Albatrosses ..............................................................................................229

An Arduous Migration ..............................................................................230


Hunting Ability in Constant Position ........................................................231

The Creation Miracles in Bird Feathers...................................................232

Basilisk: The Expert of Walking on Water ...............................................234

Photosynthesis ........................................................................................235

CHAPTER 18: The Real Essence of Matter ............................................239

The Secret Beyond Matter is Not Wahdatul Wujood...............................239

There Is Matter Outside Of Us, But We Cannot Reach It .......................240

Knowing The Real Essence Of Matter ....................................................241

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The World of Electrical Signals ...............................................................242

How Do We See, Hear, And Taste? .......................................................243

"The External World" Inside Our Brain ...................................................247

The World of Senses Can Occur Without Outside World's Existence ....250

"The World of Senses" that We Experience in Dreams ..........................251

Who Is The Perceiver? ............................................................................254

The Real Absolute Being.........................................................................256

Understanding the Reality of Matter Removes Worldly Ambitions..........259

The Environment That Will Come To Be When the

Real Nature of Matter Is Not Kept Secret................................................261

Logical Deficiencies of the Materialists ...................................................262

The Example of Connecting the Nerves in Parallel.................................265

The Formation of Perceptions in the Brain is not

Philosophy but Scientific Fact..................................................................266

The Great Fear of the Materialists...........................................................267

Materialists Have Fallen Into The Biggest Trap In History......................270

Conclusion ...............................................................................................274

CHAPTER 19: Relativity of Time and the Reality of Destiny................276

The Perception Of Time ..........................................................................276

The Scientific Explanation Of Timelessness ...........................................277

Relativity In The Qur'an ...........................................................................281

The Relativity of Time Explains The Reality of Destiny ..........................284

The Concept Of "Past" Comes From Information In Our Memories .......285

Past And Future Are News Of The Unseen ............................................287

The Importance Of Submission To Destiny.............................................288

The Worry of the Materialists ..................................................................295

The Gain of Believers ..............................................................................297

CHAPTER 20: SRF Conferences: Activities for Informing the

Public About Evolution ...................................................261

First Conference-Istanbul ........................................................................299

Second Conference-Istanbul ...................................................................300

Third Conference-Ankara ........................................................................302

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Most people think the theory of evolution was first proposed byCharles Darwin, and rests on scientific evidence, observationsand experiments. However, the truth is that Darwin was not its

originator, and neither does the theory rest on scientific proof. The theoryconsists of an adaptation to nature of the ancient dogma of materialist phi-losophy. Although it is not backed up by scientific discoveries, the theoryis blindly supported in the name of materialist philosophy.

This fanaticism has resulted in all kinds of disasters. Together withthe spread of Darwinism and the materialist philosophy it supports, theanswer to the question "What is a human being?" has changed. People whoused to answer: "Allah creates human beings and they have to live ac-cording to the beautiful morality He teaches", have now begun to thinkthat "Man came into being by chance, and is an animal who developed bymeans of the fight for survival." There is a heavy price to pay for this greatdeception. Violent ideologies such as racism, fascism and communism,and many other barbaric world views based on conflict have all drawnstrength from this deception.

This part will examine the disaster Darwinism has visited on theworld and reveal its direct connection with terrorism, one of the most im-portant global problems of our time.

The Darwinist Lie: 'Life is conflict'

Darwin set out with one basic deception when developing his theory:"The development of living things depends on the fight for survival.The strong win the struggle. The weak are condemned to defeat andoblivion."

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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

According to Darwin’sunscientific view, there is aruthless struggle for sur-vival and an eternal conflictin nature. The strong al-ways overcome the weak,and this enables develop-ment to take place. The sub-title he gave to his book"The Origin of Species byMeans of Natural Selection orthe Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life", encapsulates thatview.

Furthermore, Darwin proposed that the 'fight for survival' also ap-plied between human racial groups. According to that fantastical claim,'favoured races' were victorious in the struggle. Favoured races, in Dar-win's view, were white Europeans. African or Asian races had lagged be-hind in the struggle for survival. Darwin went further, and suggested thatthese races would soon lose the "struggle for survival" entirely, and thusdisappear:

At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, thecivilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the sav-age races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphousapes… will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his near-est allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a morecivilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape aslow as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian andthe gorilla.1

The Indian anthropologist Lalita Vidyarthi explains how Darwin'stheory of evolution imposed racism on the social sciences:

His (Darwin's) theory of the survival of the fittest was warmly welcomed bythe social scientists of the day, and they believed mankind had achieved var-ious levels of evolution culminating in the white man's civilization. By thesecond half of the nineteenth century racism was accepted as fact by the vastmajority of Western scientists.2


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Darwin's Source of Inspiration:Malthus' Theory of Ruthless-ness

Darwin's source of inspiration onthis subject was the British economistThomas Malthus's book An Essay onthe Principle of Population. Left to theirown devices, Malthus calculated thatthe human population increasedrapidly. In his view, the main influ-ences that kept populations undercontrol were disasters such as war,famine and disease. In short, accord-ing to this brutal claim, some peoplehad to die for others to live. Exis-tence came to mean "permanent war."

In the 19th century, Malthus'sideas were widely accepted. European upper class intellectuals in particu-lar supported his cruel ideas. In the article "The Scientific Background ofthe Nazi 'Race Purification' Programme", the importance 19th century Eu-rope attached to Malthus's views on population is described in this way:

In the opening half of the nineteenth century, throughout Europe, membersof the ruling classes gathered to discuss the newly discovered "Populationproblem" and to devise ways of implementing the Malthusian mandate, toincrease the mortality rate of the poor: "Instead of recommending cleanli-ness to the poor, we should encourage contrary habits. In our towns weshould make the streets narrower, crowd more people into the houses, andcourt the return of the plague. In the country we should build our villagesnear stagnant pools, and particularly encourage settlements in all marshyand unwholesome situations," and so forth and so on.3

As a result of this cruel policy, the weak, and those who lost the strug-gle for survival would be eliminated, and as a result the rapid rise in pop-ulation would be balanced out. This so-called "oppression of the poor"policy was actually carried out in 19th century Britain. An industrial orderwas set up in which children of eight and nine were made to work sixteenhours a day in the coal mines and thousands died from the terrible condi-tions. The "struggle for survival" demanded by Malthus's theory led to


Thomas Robert Malthus

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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

millions of Britons leading lives full of suffering.Influenced by these deviant ideas, Darwin applied this concept of

conflict to all of nature, and proposed that the strong and the fittestemerged victorious from this war of imaginary existence. Moreover, heclaimed that the so-called struggle for survival was a justified and un-changeable law of nature. On the other hand, he invited people to aban-don their religious beliefs by denying the Creation, and thus underminedat all ethical values that might prove to be obstacles to the ruthlessness ofthe "struggle for survival."

Humanity has paid a heavy price in the 20th century for the dissemi-nation of these callous views which lead people to acts of ruthlessness andcruelty.

What 'The Law of the Jungle' Led to: Fascism

As Darwinism fed racism in the 19th century, it formed the basis of anideology that would develop and drown the world in blood in the 20thcentury: Nazism.

A strong Darwinist influence can be seen in Nazi ideologues. Whenone examines this theory, which was given shape by Adolf Hitler and Al-fred Rosenberg, one comes across such concepts as "natural selection", "se-lective mating", and "the struggle for survivalbetween the races", which are repeated dozens oftime in the works of Darwin. When calling his bookMein Kampf (My Struggle), Hitler was inspired by theDarwinist struggle for survival and the principle thatvictory went to thefittest. He particu-larly talks about thestruggle between theraces:

History wouldculminate in anew millennialempire of unpar-alleled splen-dour, based on anew racial hierar-


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chy ordained by nature herself.4

In the 1933 Nuremberg party rally, Hitlerproclaimed that "a higher race subjects to it-self a lower race… a right which we see innature and which can be regarded as thesole conceivable right".

That the Nazis were influenced byDarwinism is a fact that almost all histori-ans who are expert in the matter accept.The historian Hickman describes Dar-winism's influence on Hitler as follows:

(Hitler) was a firm believer andpreacher of evolution. Whatever thedeeper, profound, complexities of hispsychosis, it is certain that [the concept of struggle wasimportant because]… his book, Mein Kampf, clearly set forth a numberof evolutionary ideas, particularly those emphasizing struggle, survival ofthe fittest and the extermination of the weak to produce a better society.5

Hitler, who emerged with these views, dragged the world to violencethat had never before been seen. Many ethnic and political groups, and es-pecially the Jews, were exposed to terrible cruelty and slaughter in theNazi concentration camps. World War II, which began with the Nazi in-vasion, cost 55 million lives. What lay behind the greatest tragedy in worldhistory was Darwinism's concept of the "struggle for survival."

The Bloody Alliance: Darwinism and Communism

While fascists are found on the right wing of Social Darwinism, theleft wing is occupied by communists. Communists have always beenamong the fiercest defenders of Darwin's theory.

This relationship between Darwinism and communism goes rightback to the founders of both these "isms". Marx and Engels, the foundersof communism, read Darwin's The Origin of Species as soon as it came out,and were amazed at its 'dialectical materialist' attitude. The correspon-dence between Marx and Engels showed that they saw Darwin's theory as"containing the basis in natural history for communism". In his book TheDialectics of Nature, which he wrote under the influence of Darwin, Engels


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

was full of praise for Darwin, and tried to make his own contribution tothe theory in the chapter "The Part Played by Labour in the Transitionfrom Ape to Man".

Russian communists who followed in the footsteps of Marx and En-gels, such as Plekhanov, Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin, all agreed with Dar-win's theory of evolution. Plekhanov, who is seen as the founder ofRussian communism, regarded marxism as "Darwinism in its applicationto social science".6

Trotsky said, "Darwin's discovery is the highest triumph of the di-alectic in the whole field of organic matter." 7

'Darwinist education' had a major role in the formation of communistcadres. For instance, historians note the fact that Stalin was religious inhis youth, but became an atheist primarily because of Darwin's books.8

Mao, who established communist rule in China and killed millions ofpeople, openly stated that "Chinese socialism is founded upon Darwinand the theory of evolution." 9

The Harvard University historian James Reeve Pusey goes into greatdetail regarding Darwinism's effect on Mao and Chinese communism inhis research book China and Charles Darwin.10

In short, there is an unbreakable link between the theory of evolutionand communism. The theory claims that living things are the product ofchance, and provides a so-called scientific support for atheism. Commu-nism, an atheist ideology, is for that reason firmly tied to Darwinism.Moreover, the theory of evolution proposes that development in nature ispossible thanks to conflict (in other words "the struggle for survival") andsupports the concept of "dialectics" which is fundamental to communism.

If we think of the communist concept of "dialectical conflict", whichkilled some 120 million people during the 20th century, as a "killing ma-chine" then we can better understand the dimensions of the disaster thatDarwinism visited on the planet.

Darwinism and Terrorism

As we have so far seen, Darwinism is at the root of various ideologiesof violence that have spelled disaster to mankind in the 20th century. Thefundamental concept behind this understanding and method is "fightingwhoever is not one of us."


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We can explain this in the following way: There are different beliefs,worldviews and philosophies in the world. It is very natural that all thesediverse ideas have traits opposing one another. However, these differentstances can look at each other in one of two ways:

1) They can respect the existence of those who are not like them andtry to establish dialogue with them, employing a humane method. Indeed,this method conforms with the morality of the Qur'an.

2) They can choose to fight others, and to try to secure an advantageby damaging them, in other words, to behave like a wild animal. This is amethod employed by materialism, that is, irreligion.

The horror we call terrorism is nothing other than a statement of thesecond view.

When we consider the difference between these two approaches, wecan see that the idea of "man as a fighting animal" which Darwinism hassubconsciously imposed on people is particularly influential. Individualsand groups who choose the way of conflict may never have heard of Dar-winism and the principles of that ideology. But at the end of the day theyagree with a view whose philosophical basis rests on Darwinism. Whatleads them to believe in the rightness of this view is such Darwinism-based slogans as "In this world, the strong survive", "Big fish swallow lit-tle ones", "War is a virtue", and "Man advances by waging war". TakeDarwinism away, and these are nothing but empty slogans.

Actually, when Darwinism is taken away, no philosophy of 'conflict'remains. The three divine religions that most people in the world believein, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, all oppose violence. All three religionswish to bring peace and harmony to the world, and oppose innocent peo-ple being killed and suffering cruelty and torture. Conflict and violence vi-olate the morality that Allah has set out for man, and are abnormal andunwanted concepts. However, Darwinism sees and portrays conflict andviolence as natural, justified and correct concepts that have to exist.

For this reason, if some people commit terrorism using the conceptsand symbols of Islam, Christianity or Judaism in the name of those reli-gions, you can be sure that those people are not Muslims, Christians orJews. They are real Social Darwinists. They hide under a cloak of religion,but they are not genuine believers. Even if they claim to be serving reli-gion, they are actually opposed to religion and believers. That is because


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materialism

they are ruthlessly committing a crime that religion forbids.For this reason, the root of the terrorism that plagues our planet is not

any of the divine religions, but in atheism, and the expression of atheismin our times: "Darwinism" and "materialism."


Some people who say they are acting in the name of religion maymisunderstand their religion or practice it wrongly. For that reason, itwould be wrong to form ideas about that religion by taking these peopleas an example. The best way to understand a religion is to study its di-vine source.

The holy source of Islam is the Qur'an and the hadith of our Prophet(may Allah bless him and grant him peace); and the model of morality inthe Qur'an-Islam-is completely different from the image of it formed in theminds of some westerners. The Qur'an is based on the concepts of moral-ity, love, compassion, mercy, humility, sacrifice, tolerance and peace, anda Muslim who lives by thatmorality in its true sense will bemost polite, considerate, under-standing, trustworthy and acco-modating. He will spread love,respect, harmony and the joy ofliving all around him.

Islam is a Religion ofPeace and Well-Being

The word Islam is derivedfrom the word meaning "peace"in Arabic. Islam is a religion re-vealed to mankind with the inten-tion of presenting a peacable lifethrough which the infinite com-passion and mercy of Allah man-ifest on earth. Allah calls allpeople to Islamic morals throughthrough which mercy, compas-


No matter what ideology they may es-pouse, those who perpetrate terror all

over the world are, in reality, Darwinists.Darwinism is the only philosophy that

places a value on—and thus encour-ages—conflict.

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sion, tolerance and peace can be experienced all over the world. In Surat al-Baqara verse 208, Allah addresses the believers as follows:

You who believe! Enter absolutely into peace [Islam]. Do not follow in thefootsteps of Satan. He is an outright enemy to you.

As the verse makes clear, security can only be ensured by 'enteringinto Islam', that is, living by the values of the Qur'an.

Allah Has Condemned Wickedness

Allah has commanded people to avoid committing evil; He has for-bidden disbelief, immorality, rebellion, cruelty, aggressiveness, murderand bloodshed. He describes those who fail to obey this command as "fol-lowing in Satan's footsteps" and adopting a posture that is openly revealedto be sinful in the Qur'an. A few of the many verses on this matter in theQur'an read:

But as for those who break Allah's contract after it has been agreed andsever what Allah has commanded to be joined, and cause corruption in theearth, the curse will be upon them. They will have the Evil Abode. (Suratar-Ra'd: 25)

Seek the abode of the hereafter with what Allah has given you, withoutforgetting your portion of the world. And do good as Allah has been goodto you. And do not seek to cause mischief on earth. Allah does not lovemischief makers.' (Surat al-Qasas: 77)

As we can see, Allah has forbidden every kind of mischievous acts inthe religion of Islam including terrorism and violence, and condemnedthose who commit such deeds. A Muslim lends beauty to the world andimproves it.

Islam Defends Being Understanding and Freedom of Speech

Islam is a religion which provides and guarantees freedom of ideas,thought and life. It has issued commands to prevent and forbid tension,disputes, slander and even negative thinking among people.

In the same way that it is determinedly opposed to terrorism and allacts of violence, it has also forbidden even the slightest ideological pres-sure to be put on them:

There is no compulsion in religion. Right guidance has become clearly dis-tinct from error. Anyone who rejects false gods and believes in Allah hasgrasped the Firmest Handhold, which will never give way. Allah is All-


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materalism

Hearing, All-Knowing. (Surat al-Baqara: 256)

So remind, you need only to remind. You cannot compel them to believe.(Surat al-Ghashiyah: 22)

Forcing people to believe in a religion or to adopt its forms of belief iscompletely contrary to the essence and spirit of Islam. According to Islam,true faith is only possible with free will and freedom of conscience. Ofcourse, Muslims can advise and encourage each other about the featuresof Qur'anic morality, but they will never resort to compulsion, nor anykind of physical or psychological pressure. Neither will they use anyworldly privilege to turn someone towards religion.

Let us imagine a completely opposite model of society. For example,a world in which people are forced by law to practice religion. Such amodel of society is completely contrary to Islam because faith and wor-ship are only of any value when they are directed to Allah by the freewill of the individual. If a system imposes belief and worship on people,then they will become religious only out of fear of that system. From thereligious point of view, what really counts is that religion should be livedfor Allah's good pleasure in an environment where peopls' consciences aretotally free.

Allah Has Made the Killing of Innocent People Unlawful

According to the Qur'an, one of the greatest sins is to kill a humanbeing who has committed no fault.


Allah callspeople topeace andsecurity,whereas irre-ligious ide-ologiesencourageconflict andterror.

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...If someone kills another person – unless it is in retaliation for someoneelse or for causing corruption in the earth – it is as if he had murdered allmankind. And if anyone gives life to another person, it is as if he hadgiven life to all mankind. Our Messengers came to them with Clear Signsbut even after that many of them committed outrages in the earth. (Suratal-Ma'ida: 32)

Those who do not call on any other deity together with Allah and do notkill anyone Allah has made inviolate, except with the right to do so, anddo not fornicate; anyone who does that will receive an evil punishment.(Surat al-Furqan: 68)

As the verses suggest, a person who kills innocent people for no rea-son is threatened with a great torment. Allah has revealed that killing evena single person is as evil as murdering all mankind. A person who ob-serves Allah's limits can do no harm to a single human, let alone massacrethousands of innocent people. Those who assume that they can avoid jus-tice and thus punishment in this world will never succeed, for they willhave to give an account of their deeds in the presence of Allah. That is whybelievers, who know that they will give an account of their deeds afterdeath, are very meticulous to observe Allah's limits.

Allah Commands Believers to be Compassionate and Merciful

Islamic morality is described in the Qur’an as: ...To be one of those who believe and urge each other to steadfastness andurge each other to compassion. Those are the Companions of the Right.(Surat al-Balad: 17-18)

As we have seen in this verse, one of the most important moral pre-cepts that Allah has sent down to His servants so that they may receive sal-vation and mercy and attain Paradise, is to "urge each other tocompassion".

Islam as described in the Qur'an is a modern, enlightened, progres-sive religion. A Muslim is above all a person of peace; he is tolerant with ademocratic spirit, cultured, enlightened, honest, knowledgeable about artand science and civilized.

A Muslim educated in the fine moral teaching of the Qur'an, ap-proaches everyone with the love that Islam expects. He shows respect forevery idea and he values art and aesthetics. He is conciliatory in the faceof every event, diminishing tension and restoring amity. In societies com-


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The Real Ideological Root of Terrorism: Darwinism and Materalism

posed of individuals such as this, there will be a more developed civiliza-tion, a higher social morality, more joy, happiness, justice, security, abun-dance and blessings than in the most modern nations of the world today.

Allah Has Commanded Being Understanding and Forgiveness

The concept of forgiveness and being understanding, described in thewords, 'Make allowaences for people' (Surat al-A'raf: 199), is one of themost fundamental tenets of Islam.

When we look at the history of Islam, the way that Muslims havetranslated this important feature of Qur'anic morality into the life of soci-ety can be seen quite clearly. Muslims have always brought with them anatmosphere of freedom and tolerance and destroyed unlawful practiceswherever they have gone. They have enabled people whose religions, lan-guages and cultures are completely different from one another to live to-gether in peace and harmony under one roof, and provided peace andharmony for its own members. One of the most important reasons for thecenturies-long existence of the Ottoman Empire, which spread over an


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enormous region, was the atmosphere of understanding that Islam broughtwith it. Muslims, who have been known for their tolerant and loving naturesfor centuries, have always been the most compassionate and just of people.Within this multi-national structure, all ethnic groups have been free to liveaccording to their own religions, and their own rules.

True tolerance can only bring peace and well-being to the world whenimplemented along the lines set out in the Qur'an. Attention is drawn to thisfact in a verse which reads:

A good action and a bad action are not the same. Repel the bad with some-thing better and, if there is enmity between you and someone else, he willbe like a bosom friend. (Surat al-Fussilat: 34)


All of this shows that the morality that Islam recommends to mankindbrings to the world the virtues of peace, harmony and justice. The barbarismknown as terrorism, that is so preoccupying the world at present, is the workof ignorant and fanatical people, completely estranged from Qur'anic moral-ity, and who have absolutely nothing to do with religion. The solution tothese people and groups who try to carry out their savagery under the maskof religion is the teaching of true Qur'anic morality. In other words, Islamand Qur'anic morality are solutions to the scourge of terrorism, not sup-porters of it.


1. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd edition, New York, A L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 1782. Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Racism, Science and Pseudo-Science, Unesco, France, Vendôme, 1983. p. 543. Theodore D. Hall, The Scientific Background of the Nazi "Race Purification" Program, L.H. Gann, "Adolf Hitler, The Complete Totalitarian", The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 1985, p. 24; cited in

Henry M. Morris, The Long war Against God, Baker Book House, 1989, p. 785. Hickman, R., Biocreation, Science Press, Worthington, OH, pp. 51–52, 1983; Jerry Bergman,

"Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust", Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 13 (2): 101-111, 19996. Robert M. Young, Darwinian Evolution and Human History, Historical Studies on Science and Belief, 19807. Alan Woods and Ted Grant, Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London: 19938. Alex de Jonge, Stalin and The Shaping of the Soviet Uninon, William Collins Sons & Limited Co.,

Glasgow, 1987, p. 229. K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao's Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977

10. James Reeve Pusey, China and Charles Darwin, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1983

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For some people the theory of evolution or Darwinism has only sci-entific connotations, with seemingly no direct implication in theirdaily lives. This is, of course, a common misunderstanding. Far be-

yond just being an issue within the framework of the biological sciences,the theory of evolution constitutes the underpinning of a deceptive phi-losophy that has held sway over a large number of people: Materialism.

Materialist philosophy, which accepts only the existence of matterand presupposes man to be 'a heap of matter', asserts that he is no morethan an animal, with 'conflict' the sole rule of his existence. Although prop-agated as a modern philosophy based on science, materialism is in fact anancient dogma with no scientific basis. Conceived in Ancient Greece, thedogma was rediscovered by the atheistic philosophers of the 18th century.It was then implanted in the 19th century into several science disciplinesby thinkers such as Karl Marx, Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud. Inother words science was distorted to make room for materialism.

The past two centuries have been a bloody arena of materialism: Ide-ologies based on materialism (or competing ideologies arguing against ma-terialism, yet sharing its basic tenets) have brought permanent violence,war and chaos to the world. Communism, responsible for the death of 120million people, is the direct outcome of materialistic philosophy. Fascism,despite pretending to be an alternative to the materialistic world-view, ac-cepted the fundamental materialist concept of progress though conflict andsparked off oppressive regimes, massacres, world wars and genocide.

Besides these two bloody ideologies, individual and social ethics havealso been corrupted by materialism.

The deceptive message of materialism, reducing man to an animalwhose existence is coincidental and with no responsibility to any being,demolished moral pillars such as love, mercy, self-sacrifice, modesty, hon-esty and justice. Having been misled by the materialists' motto "life is astruggle", people came to see their lives as nothing more than a clash of in-

Why the The o ry

of Ev o lu tion?


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terests which, in turn, led to life according to the law of the jungle. Traces of this philosophy, which has a lot to answer as regards man-

made disasters of the last two centuries, can be found in every ideologythat perceives differences among people as a 'reason for conflict'. That in-cludes the terrorists of the present day who claim to uphold religion, yetcommit one of the greatest sins by murdering innocent people.

The theory of evolution, or Darwinism, comes in handy at this pointby completing the jigsaw puzzle. It provides the myth that materialism isa scientific idea. That is why, Karl Marx, the founder of communism anddialectical materialism, wrote that Darwinism was "the basis in naturalhistory" for his worldview.1

However, that basis is rotten. Modern scientific discoveries revealover and over again that the popular belief associating Darwinism withscience is false. Scientific evidence refutes Darwinism comprehensivelyand reveals that the origin of our existence is not evolution but creation.Allah has created the universe, all living things and man.

This book has been written to make this fact known to people. Sinceits first publication, originally in Turkey and then in many other countries,millions of people have read and appreciated the book. In addition toTurkish, it has been printed in English, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian,Chinese, Bosnian, Arabic, Albanian, Urdu, Malay and Indonesian. (Thetext of the book is freely available in all these languages

The impact of The Evolution Deceit has been acknowledged by stan-dard-bearers of the opposing view. Harun Yahya was the subject of a NewScientist article called "Burning Darwin". This leading popular Darwinist

Karl Marx made it clear thatDarwin's theory provided asolid ground for materialismand thus also for communism.He also showed his sympathyto Darwin by dedicating DasKapital, which is considered ashis greatest work, to him. In theGerman edition of the book, hewrote: "From a devoted ad-mirer to Charles Darwin"

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Why the The o ry of Ev o lu tion 29

periodical noted in its 22April 2000 issue thatHarun Yahya "is an inter-national hero" sharing itsconcern that his books"have spread everywherein the Islamic world."

Science, the leadingperiodical of the generalscientific community, em-phasized the impact andsophistication of HarunYahya's works. The Sciencearticle "Creationism TakesRoot Where Europe, AsiaMeet", dated 18 May 2001,observed that in Turkey"sophisticated books such

as The Evolution Deceit and The Dark Face of Darwinism... have become moreinfluential than textbooks in certain parts of the country". The reporterthen goes on to assess Harun Yahya's work, which has initiated "one of theworld's strongest anti-evolution movements outside of North America".

Although such evolutionist periodicals note the impact of The Evolu-tion Deceit, they do not offer any scientific replies to its arguments. The rea-son is, of course, that it is simply not possible. The theory of evolution is incomplete deadlock, a fact you will discover as you read the followingchapters. The book will help you realise that Darwinism is not a scientifictheory but a pseudo-scientific dogma upheld in the name of materialistphilosophy, despite counter evidence and outright refutation.

It is our hope that The Evolution Deceit will for a long time continue itscontribution towards the refutation of materialist-Darwinist dogma whichhas been misleading humanity since the 19th century. And it will remindpeople of the crucial facts of our lives, such as how we came into being andwhat our duties to our Creator are.

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A Great Miracle of Our Times:

Belief in the Evolution Deceit


A ll the millions of living species on the earth possess miraculousfeatures, unique behavioural patterns and flawless physicalstructures. Every one of these living things has been created with

its own unique detail and beauty. Plants, animals, and man above all, wereall created with great knowledge and art, from their external appearancesdown to their cells, invisible to the naked eye. Today there are a greatmany branches of science, and tens of thousands of scientists working inthose branches, that research every detail of those living things, uncoverthe miraculous aspects of those details and try to provide an answer to thequestion of how they came into being.

Some of these scientists are astonished as they discover the miracu-lous aspects of these structures they study and the intelligence behind thatcoming into existence, and they witness the infinite knowledge and wis-dom involved. Others, however, surprisingly claim that all these miracu-lous features are the product of blind chance. These scientists believe in thetheory of evolution. In their view, the proteins, cells and organs that makeup these living things all came about by a string of coincidences. It is quiteamazing that such people, who have studied for long years, carried outlengthy studies and written books about the miraculous functioning of justone organelle within the cell, itself too small to be seen with the naked eye,can think that these extraordinary structures came about by chance.

The chain of coincidences such eminent professors believe in so fliesin the face of reason that their doing so leaves outside observers utterlyamazed. According to these professors, a number of simple chemical sub-stances first came together and formed a protein - which is no more possi-ble than a randomly scattered collection of letters coming together to forma poem. Then, other coincidences led to the emergence of other proteins.These then also combined by chance in an organised manner. Not just pro-teins, but DNA, RNA, enzymes, hormones and cell organelles, all of which

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A Great Miracle of Our Times: Belief in the Evolution Deceit

are very complex structures within the cell, coincidentally happened toemerge and come together. As a result of these billions of coincidences, thefirst cell came into being. The miraculous ability of blind chance did notstop there, as these cells then just happened to begin to multiply. Accord-ing to the claim in question, another coincidence then organised these cellsand produced the first living thing from them.

Billions of "impossible events" had to take place together for just oneeye in a living thing to form. Here too the blind process known as coinci-dence entered the equation: It first opened two holes of the requisite sizeand in the best possible place in the skull, and then cells that happened bychance to find themselves in those places coincidentally began to constructthe eye.

As we have seen, coincidences acted in the knowledge of what theywanted to produce. Right from the very start, "chance" knew what seeing,


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hearing and breathing were, even though there was not one example ofsuch things anywhere in the world at that time. It displayed great intelli-gence and awareness, exhibited considerable forward planning, and con-structed life step by step. This is the totally irrational scenario to whichthese professors, scientists and researchers whose names are greatly re-spected and whose ideas are so influential have devoted themselves. Evennow, with a childish stubbornness, they exclude anyone who refuses to be-lieve in such fairy tales, accusing them of being unscientific and bigoted.There is really no difference between this and the bigoted, fanatical and ig-norant medieval mentality that punished those who claimed the earth wasnot flat.

What is more, some of these people claim to be Muslims and believe inAllah. Such people find saying, "Allah created all of life" unscientific, and yetare quite able to believe instead that saying, "It came about in an unconsciousprocess consisting of billions of miraculous coincidences" is scientific.

If you put a carved stone or wooden idol in front of these people andtold them, "Look, this idol created this room and everything in it" theywould say that was utterly stupid and refuse to believe it. Yet despite thatthey declare the nonsense that "The unconscious process known as chancegradually brought this world and all the billions of wonderful livingthings in it into being with enormous planning" to be the greatest scientificexplanation.

In short, these people regard chance as a god, and claim that it is in-telligent, conscious and powerful enough to create living things and all thesensitive balances in the universe. When told that it was Allah, the pos-sessor of infinite wisdom, who created all living things, these evolutionistprofessors refuse to accept the fact, and maintain that unconscious, unin-telligent, powerless billions of coincidences with no will of their own areactually a creative force.

The fact that educated, intelligent and knowledgeable people can as agroup believe in the most irrational and illogical claim in history, as ifunder a spell, is really a great miracle. In the same way that Allah miracu-lously creates something like the cell, with its extraordinary organizationand properties, this people are just as miraculously so blind and devoid ofunderstanding as to be unable to see what is under their very noses. It isone of Allah's miracles that evolutionists are unable to see facts that even


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tiny children can, and fail to grasp them no matter how many times theyare told.

You will frequently come across that miracle as you read this book.And you will also see that as well as being a theory that has totally col-lapsed in the face of the scientific facts, Darwinism is a great deceit that isutterly incompatible with reason and logic, and which belittles those whodefend it.

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To Be Freed From

Prej u dice


Most people accept everything they hear from scientists asstrictly true. It does not even occur to them that scientists mayalso have various philosophical or ideological prejudices. The

fact of the matter is that evolutionist scientists impose their own prejudicesand philosophical views on the public under the guise of science. For in-stance, although they are aware that random events do not cause anythingother than irregularity and confusion, they still claim that the marvellousorder, plan, and structure seen both in the universe and in living organ-isms arose by chance.

For instance, such a biologist easily grasps that there is an awe-in-spiring harmony in a protein molecule, the building block of life, and thatthere is no probability that this might have come about by chance. Never-theless, he alleges that this protein came into existence under primitiveearth conditions by chance billions of years ago. He does not stop there; healso claims, without hesitation, that not only one, but millions of proteinsformed by chance and then amazingly came together to create the first liv-ing cell. Moreover, he defends his view with a blind stubbornness. Thisperson is an "evolutionist" scientist.

If the same scientist were to find three bricks resting on top of one an-other while walking along a flat road, he would never suppose that thesebricks had come together by chance and then climbed up on top of eachother, again by chance. Indeed, anyone who did make such an assertionwould be considered insane.

How then can it be possible that people who are able to assess ordi-nary events rationally can adopt such an irrational attitude when it comesto thinking about their own existence?

It is not possible to claim that this attitude is adopted in the name ofscience: scientific approach requires taking both alternatives into consid-

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eration wherever there are two alternatives equally possible concerning acertain case. And if the likelihood of one of the two alternatives is muchlower, for example if it is only one percent, then the rational and scientificthing to do is to consider the other alternative, whose likelihood is 99 per-cent, to be the valid one.

Let us continue, keeping this scientific basis in mind. There are twoviews that are set forth regarding how living beings came into being onearth. The first is that Allah creates all living beings in their present com-plex structure. The second is that life was formed by unconscious, randomcoincidences. The latter is the claim of the theory of evolution.

When we look at the scientific data, that of molecular biology for in-stance, we can see that there is no chance whatsoever that a single livingcell-or even one of the millions of proteins present in this cell-could havecome into existence by chance as the evolutionists claim. As we will illus-trate in the following chapters, probabilistic calculations also confirm thismany times over. So the evolutionist view on the emergence of living be-ings has zero probability of being true.

This means that the first view has a "one hundred percent" probabil-ity of being true. That is, life has been instantly brought into being. To putit in another way, it was "created". All living beings have come into exis-tence as the creation of Allah exalted in superior power, wisdom, andknowledge. This reality is not simply a matter of conviction; it is the nor-mal conclusion that wisdom, logic and science take one to.

Under these circ*mstances, our "evolutionist" scientist ought to with-draw his claim and adhere to a fact that is both obvious and proven. To dootherwise is to demonstrate that he is actually someone who is exploitingscience for his philosophy, ideology, and dogma rather than being a truescientist.

The anger, stubbornness, and prejudices of our "scientist" increasemore and more every time he confronts reality. His attitude can be ex-plained with a single word: "faith". Yet it is a blind superstitious faith,since there can be no other explanation for one's disregard of all the factsor for a lifelong devotion to the preposterous scenario that he has con-structed in his imagination.

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Blind Materialism

The false faith that we are talking about is the materialistic philoso-phy, which argues that matter has existed for all eternity and there is noth-ing other than matter. The theory of evolution is the so-called "scientificfoundation" for this materialistic philosophy and that theory is blindly de-fended in order to uphold this philosophy. When science invalidates theclaims of evolution-and that is the very point that has been reached at theend of the 20th century-it then is sought to be distorted and brought intoa position where it supports evolution for the sake of keeping materialismalive.

A few lines written by one of the prominent evolutionist biologists ofTurkey is a good example that enables us to see the disordered judgementand discretion that this blind devotion leads to. This scientist discusses theprobability of the coincidental formation of Cytochrome-C, which is one ofthe most essential enzymes for life, as follows:

The probability of the formation of a Cytochrome-C sequence is as likely aszero. That is, if life requires a certain sequence, it can be said that this has aprobability likely to be realised once in the whole universe. Otherwise, somemetaphysical powers beyond our definition should have acted in its forma-tion. To accept the latter is not appropriate to the goals of science. We there-fore have to look into the first hypothesis.2

This scientist finds it "more scientific" to accept a possibility "as likelyas zero" rather than creation. However according to the rules of science, ifthere are two alternative explanations concerning an event and if one ofthem has "as likely as zero" a possibility of realisation, then the other oneis the correct alternative. However the dogmatic materialistic approachforbids the admittance of a superior Creator. This prohibition drives thisscientist-and many others who believe in the same materialist dogma-toaccept claims that are completely contrary to reason.

People who believe and trust these scientists also become enthralledand blinded by the same materialistic spell and they adopt the same indif-ference when reading their books and articles.

This dogmatic materialistic point of view is the reason why manyprominent names in the scientific community are atheists. Those who freethemselves from the thrall of this spell and think with an open mind donot hesitate to accept the existence of a Creator. American biochemist DrMichael J. Behe, one of those prominent names who support the move-

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To Be Freed From Prej u dice 37

ment to defend the fact of creation that has lately become very accepted,describes the scientists who resist believing in the creation of living or-ganisms thus:

Over the past four decades, modern bio-chemistry has uncovered the secrets of thecell. It has required tens of thousands of peo-ple to dedicate the better parts of their livesto the tedious work of the laboratory… Theresult of these cumulative efforts to investi-gate the cell- to investigate life at the molec-ular level-is a loud, clear, piercing cry of"design!". The result is so unambiguous andso significant that it must be ranked as one ofthe greatest achievements in the history ofscience… Instead a curious, embarrassed si-lence surrounds the stark complexity of thecell. Why does the scientific community notgreedily embrace its startling discovery?3

This is the predicament of the atheistevolutionist scientists you see in magazinesand on television and whose books you may be reading. All the scientificresearch carried out by these people demonstrates to them the existence ofAllah. Yet they have become so insensitised and blinded by the dogmaticmaterialist education they have absorbed that they still persist in their de-nial.

People who steadily neglect the clear signs and evidences of the Cre-ator become totally insensitive. Caught up in an ignorant self-confidencecaused by their insensitivity, they may even end up supporting an absur-dity as a virtue. A good case in point is the atheist evolutionist RichardDawkins who calls upon Christians not to assume that they have wit-nessed a miracle even if they see a statue wave to them. According toDawkins, "Perhaps all the atoms of the statue's arm just happened to movein the same direction at once-a low probability event to be sure, but possi-ble." 4

The psychology of the unbeliever has existed throughout history. Inthe Qur'an it is described thus:

Even if We did send unto them angels, and the dead did speak unto them,and We gathered together all things before their very eyes, they are not the

Michael Behe:"An embarrased silence

surrounds the stark complex-ity of the cell"

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ones to believe, unless it is in Allah's plan.But most of them ignore [the truth]. (Suratal-An’am: 111)

As this verse makes clear, the dogmaticthinking of the evolutionists is not an originalway of thinking, nor is it even peculiar tothem. In fact, what the evolutionist scientistmaintains is not a modern scientific thoughtbut an ignorance that has persevered sincethe most uncivilised pagan communities.

The same psychology is defined in an-other verse of the Qur'an:

Even if We opened out to them a gate fromheaven and they were to continue [(all day)]ascending therein, they would only say: "Our eyesight is befuddled! Orrather we have been put under a spell!" eyes have been intoxicated: Nay, wehave been bewitched by sorcery." (Surat al-Hijr : 14-15)

Mass Evolutionist Indoctrination

As indicated in the verses cited above, one of the reasons why peoplecannot see the realities of their existence is a kind of "spell" impeding theirreasoning. It is the same "spell" that underlies the world-wide acceptanceof the theory of evolution. What we mean by spell is a conditioning ac-quired by indoctrination. People are exposed to such an intense indoctri-nation about the correctness of the theory of evolution that they often donot even realise the distortion that exists.

This indoctrination creates a negative effect on the brain and disablesthe faculty of judgement and comprehension. Eventually, the brain, beingunder a continuous indoctrination, starts to perceive the realities not asthey are but as they have been indoctrinated. This phenomenon can be ob-served in other examples. For instance, if someone is hypnotised and in-doctrinated that the bed he is lying on is a car, he perceives the bed as a carafter the hypnosis session. He thinks that this is very logical and rationalbecause he really sees it that way and has no doubt that he is right. Suchexamples as the one above, which show the efficiency and the power of themechanism of indoctrination, are scientific realities that have been verified


Richard Dawkins, busy with propagating evolution

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by countless experiments that have been reported in the scientific litera-ture and are the everyday fare of psychology and psychiatry textbooks.

The theory of evolution and the materialistic world view that relies onit are imposed on the masses by such indoctrination methods. People whocontinuously encounter the indoctrination of evolution in the media, aca-demic sources, and "scientific" platforms, fail to realise that accepting thistheory is in fact contrary to the most basic principles of reason. The sameindoctrination captures scientists as well. Young names stepping up in theirscientific careers adopt the materialist world view more and more as timepasses. Enchanted by this spell, many evolutionist scientists go on searchingfor scientific confirmation of 19th century's irrational and outdated evolu-tionist claims that have long since been refuted by scientific evidence.

There are also additional mechanisms that force scientists to beevolutionist and materialist. In Western countries, a scientist has to ob-serve some standards in order to be promoted, to receive academic recog-nition, or to have his articles published in scientific journals. Astraightforward acceptance of evolution is the number-one criterion. Thissystem drives these scientists so far as to spend their whole lives and sci-entific careers for the sake of a dogmatic belief. American molecular biol-ogist Jonathan Wells refers to these pressure mechanisms in his book Iconsof Evolution published in 2000:

...Dogmatic Darwinists begin by imposing a narrow interpretation on the ev-idence and declaring it the only way to do science. Critics are then labeledunscientific; their articles are rejected by mainstreamjournals, whose editorial boards are dominated bythe dogmatists; the critics are denied funding bygovernment agencies, who send grant proposals tothe dogmatists for "peer" review; and eventually thecritics are hounded out of scientific community alto-gether. In the process, evidence against the Darwin-ian view simply disappears, like witnesses againstthe Mob. Or the evidence is buried in specializedpublications, where only a dedicated researcher canfind. Once critics have been silenced and counter-evidence has been buried, the dogmatists announcethat there is scientific debate about their theory,and no evidence against it.5

This is the reality that continues to lie behind

To Be Freed From Prej u dice 39

Icons of Evolution, byJonathan Wells

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the assertion "evolution is still accepted by the world of science". Evolutionis kept alive not because it has a scientific worth but because it is an ideo-logical obligation. Very few of the scientists who are aware of this fact canrisk pointing out that the king isn't wearing any clothes.

In the rest of this book, we will be reviewing the findings of modernscience against evolution which are either disregarded by evolutionists or"buried in specialized publications", and display of the clear evidence ofAllah's existence. The reader will witness that evolution theory is in fact adeceit-a deceit that is belied by science at every step but is upheld to veilthe fact of creation. What is to be hoped of the reader is that he will wakeup from the spell that blinds people's minds and disrupts their ability tojudge and he will reflect seriously on what is related in this book.

If he rids himself of this spell and thinks clearly, freely, and withoutany prejudice, he will soon discover the crystal-clear truth. This inevitabletruth, also demonstrated by modern science in all its aspects, is that livingorganisms came into existence not by chance but as a result of creation.Man can easily see the fact of creation when he considers how he himselfexists, how he has come into being from a drop of water, or the perfectionof every other living thing.

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A Brief His to ry

of the The o ry


The roots of evolutionist thought go back as far as antiquity as adogmatic belief attempting to deny the fact of creation. Most of thepagan philosophers in ancient Greece defended the idea of evolu-

tion. When we take a look at the history of philosophy we see that the ideaof evolution constitutes the backbone of many pagan philosophies.

However, it is not this ancient pagan philosophy, but faith in Allahwhich has played a stimulating role in the birth and development of mod-ern science. Most of the people who pioneered modern science believed inthe existence of Allah; and while studying science, they sought to discoverthe universe Allah has created and to perceive His laws and the details inHis creation. Astronomers such as Copernicus, Keppler, and Galileo; thefather of paleontology, Cuvier; the pioneer of botany and zoology, Lin-naeus; and Isaac Newton, who is referred to as the "greatest scientist whoever lived", all studied science believing not only in the existence of Allahbut also that the whole universe came into being as a result of His cre-ation.6 Albert Einstein, considered to be the greatest genius of our age,was another devout scientist who believed in Allah and stated thus; "I can-not conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situa-tion may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame." 7

One of the founders of modern physics, German physician MaxPlanck said: "Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scientific workof any kind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of sci-ence are written the words: Ye must have faith. It is a quality which the sci-entist cannot dispense with." 8

The theory of evolution is the outcome of the materialist philosophythat surfaced with the reawakening of ancient materialistic philosophiesand became widespread in the 19th century. As we have indicated before,materialism seeks to explain nature through purely material factors. Sinceit denies creation right from the start, it asserts that every thing, whetheranimate or inanimate, has appeared without an act of creation but rather

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as a result of a coincidence that then acquired a condition of order. Thehuman mind however is so structured as to comprehend the existence ofan organising will wherever it sees order. Materialistic philosophy, whichis contrary to this very basic characteristic of the human mind, produced"the theory of evolution" in the middle of the 19th century.

Darwin's Imagination

The person who put forward the theory ofevolution the way it is defended today, was an am-ateur English naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin.

Darwin had never undergone a formal edu-cation in biology. He took only an amateur interestin the subject of nature and living things. His in-terest spurred him to voluntarily join an expedi-tion on board a ship named H.M.S. Beagle that setout from England in 1832 and travelled arounddifferent regions of the world for five years. YoungDarwin was greatly impressed by various livingspecies, especially by certain finches that he saw inthe Galapagos Islands. He thought that the variations in their beaks werecaused by their adaptation to their habitat. With this idea in mind, he sup-posed that the origin of life and species lay in the concept of "adaptation tothe environment." Darwin opposed to fact that Allah created different liv-ing species separately, suggesting that they rather came from a commonancestor and became differentiated from each other as a result of naturalconditions.

Darwin's hypothesis was not based on any scientific discovery or ex-periment; in time however he turned it into a pretentious theory with thesupport and encouragement he received from the widely known material-ist biologists of his time. The idea was that the individuals that adapted tothe habitat in the best way transferred their qualities to subsequent gener-ations; these advantageous qualities accumulated in time and transformedthe individual into a species totally different from its ancestors. (The ori-gin of these "advantageous qualities" was unknown at the time.) Accord-ing to Darwin, man was the most developed outcome of this imaginarymechanism.


Charles Dar win

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A Brief History of the Theory

Darwin called this process "evolution by natural selection". Hethought he had found the "origin of species": the origin of one species wasanother species. He published these views in his book titled The Origin ofSpecies, By Means of Natural Selection in 1859.

Darwin was well aware that his theory faced lots of problems. Heconfessed these in his book in the chapter "Difficulties on Theory". Thesedifficulties primarily consisted of the fossil record, complex organs of liv-ing things that could not possibly be explained by coincidence (e.g. theeye), and the instincts of living beings. Darwin hoped that these difficul-ties would be overcome by new discoveries; yet this did not stop him fromcoming up with a number of very inadequate explanations for some. TheAmerican physicist Lipson made the following comment on the "difficul-ties" of Darwin:

On reading The Origin of Species, I found that Darwin was much less surehimself than he is often represented to be; the chapter entitled "Difficulties ofthe Theory" for example, shows considerable self-doubt. As a physicist, I wasparticularly intrigued by his comments on how the eye would have arisen.9

While developing his theory, Darwin was impressed by many evolu-tionist biologists preceding him, and primarily by the French biologist,Lamarck.10 According to Lamarck, living creatures passed the traits theyacquired during their lifetime from one generation to the next and thusevolved. For instance, giraffes evolved from antelope-like animals by ex-tending their necks further and further from generation to generation asthey tried to reach higher and higher branches for food. Darwin thus em-ployed the thesis of "passing the acquired traits" proposed by Lamarck asthe factor that made living beings evolve.

But both Darwin and Lamarck were mistaken because in their day,life could only be studied with very primitive technology and at a very in-adequate level. Scientific fields such as genetics and biochemistry did notexist even in name. Their theories therefore had to depend entirely on theirpowers of imagination.

While the echoes of Darwin's book reverberated, an Austrian botanistby the name of Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance in 1865.Not much heard of until the end of the century, Mendel's discovery gainedgreat importance in the early 1900s. This was the birth of the science of ge-netics. Somewhat later, the structure of the genes and the chromosomes


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One of the most impor-tant yet least-knownaspects of Darwin is

his racism: Darwin regardedwhite Europeans as more "ad-vanced" than other humanraces. While Darwin presumedthat man evolved from ape-likecreatures, he surmised thatsome races developed morethan others and that the latterstill bore simian features. In hisbook, The Descent of Man,which he published after TheOrigin of Species, he boldlycommented on "the greaterdifferences between men ofdistinct races".1 In his book,Darwin held blacks and Aus-tralian Aborigines to be equalto gorillas and then inferredthat these would be "doneaway with" by the "civilisedraces" in time. He said:

At some future period, notvery distant as measuredby centuries, the civilizedraces of man will almost certainlyexterminate and replace the sav-age races throughout the world. Atthe same time the anthropomor-phous apes... will no doubt be ex-terminated. The break betweenman and his nearest allies will thenbe wider, for it will intervene in amore civilised state, as we mayhope, even than the Caucasian,and some ape as low as baboon,instead of as now between thenegro or Australian and the go-rilla.2

Darwin's nonsensical ideas werenot only theorised, but also brought

into a positionwhere they pro-vided the mostimportant "sci-entific ground"for racism. Sup-posing that liv-ing beingsevolved in thestruggle for life,Darwinism waseven adapted tothe social sci-

ences, and turned into a conceptionthat came to be called "Social Darwin-ism".

Social Darwinism contends thatexisting human races are located atdifferent rungs of the "evolutionaryladder", that the European races werethe most "advanced" of all, and thatmany other races still bear "simian"features.

1- Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin ReallySaid. London: Sphere Books, 1971, pp. 54-56

2- Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nded., New York: A.L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 178

Dar win's Ra cism

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A Brief History of the Theory 45

was discovered. The discovery, in the1950s, of the structure of the DNA mole-cule that incorporates genetic informa-tion threw the theory of evolution into agreat crisis. The reason was the incrediblecomplexity of life and the invalidity ofthe evolutionary mechanisms proposedby Darwin.

These developments ought to haveresulted in Darwin's theory being ban-ished to the dustbin of history. However,it was not, because certain circles in-sisted on revising, renewing, and elevat-ing the theory to a scientific platform.These efforts gain meaning only if we re-alise that behind the theory lay ideologi-cal intentions rather than scientific concerns.

The Desperate Efforts of Neo-Darwinism

Darwin's theory entered into a deep crisis because of the laws of ge-netics discovered in the first quarter of the 20th century. Nevertheless, agroup of scientists who were determined to remain loyal to Darwin en-deavoured to come up with solutions. They came together in a meeting or-ganised by the Geological Society of America in 1941. Geneticists such asG. Ledyard Stebbins and Theodosius Dobzhansky, zoologists such asErnst Mayr and Julian Huxley, paleontologists such as George GaylordSimpson and Glenn L. Jepsen, and mathematical geneticists such asRonald Fisher and Sewall Right, after long discussions, finally agreed onways to "patch up" Darwinism.

This cadre focused on the question of the origin of the advantageousvariations that supposedly caused living organisms to evolve-an issuethat Darwin himself was unable to explain but simply tried to side-step bydepending on Lamarck. The idea was now "random mutations". Theynamed this new theory "The Modern Synthetic Evolution Theory", whichwas formulated by adding the concept of mutation to Darwin's natural se-lection thesis. In a short time, this theory came to be known as "neo-Dar-

The genetic laws discovered bythe monk Gregor Mendel placedthe theory of evolution in an im-


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winism" and those who put forward the theory were called "neo-Darwin-ists".

The following decades were to become an era of desperate attemptsto prove neo-Darwinism. It was already known that mutations-or "acci-dents" -that took place in the genes of living organisms were always harm-ful. Neo-Darwinists tried to establish a case for "advantageous mutation"by carrying out thousands of mutation experiments. All their attemptsended in complete failure.

They also tried to prove that the first living organisms could haveoriginated by chance under primitive terrestrial conditions that the theoryposited but the same failure attended these experiments too. Every exper-iment that sought to prove that life could be generated by chance failed.Probability calculations prove that not even a single protein, the building-blocks of life, could have originated by chance. And the cell-which sup-posedly emerged by chance under primitive and uncontrolled terrestrialconditions according to the evolutionists-could not be synthesised by eventhe most sophisticated laboratories of the 20th century.

Neo-Darwinist theory is also defeated by the fossil record. No "tran-sitional forms", which were supposed to show the gradual evolution of liv-ing organisms from primitive to advanced species as the neo-Darwinisttheory claimed, have ever been found anywhere in the world. At the sametime, comparative anatomy revealed that species that were supposed tohave evolved from one another had in fact very different anatomical fea-tures and that they could never have been ancestors or descendants ofeach other.

Neo-Darwinism's architects: Ernst Mayr, Theodosius Dobzhansky and Julian Huxley

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When Darwin put forwardhis assumptions, thedisciplines of genet-

ics, microbiology, and bio-chemistry did not yet exist. Ifthey had been discoveredbefore Darwin put forwardhis theory, Darwin mighteasily have recognised thathis theory was totally unsci-entific and might not have at-tempted to advance suchmeaningless claims. Theinformation determiningthe species already ex-ists in the genes and it is impossi-ble for natural selection to producenew species through alterations inthe genes.

Similarly, the world of sciencein those days had a very shallowand crude understanding of thestructure and functions of the cell.If Darwin had had the chance toview the cell with an electron mi-croscope, he would have wit-nessed the great complexity andextraordinary structure in the or-ganelles of the cell. He would havebeheld with his own eyes that itwould not be possible forsuch an intricate and com-plex system to occur throughminor variations. If he hadknown about bio-mathematics,then he would have realised thatnot even a single protein mole-cule, let alone a whole cell,could not have come into exis-tence by chance.

Detailed studies of the cellwere only possible after the

discovery of the electron mi-croscope. In Darwin's time,

with the primitive micro-scopes seen here, it was

only possible to view the out-side surface of the cell. The

cell conceals an exceedingly

complex structure.

The Primitive Level of Science and Technology in Darwin's Time

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But neo-Darwinism was never a scientific theory anyway, but was anideological dogma if not to say some sort of false religion. The Canadianphilosopher of science Michael Ruse, a staunch evolutionist himself, con-fesses this in a speech he gave at a 1993 meeting:

And certainly, there's no doubt about it, that in the past, and I think also inthe present, for many evolutionists, evolution has functioned as somethingwith elements which are, let us say, akin to being a secular religion ... And itseems to me very clear that at some very basic level, evolution as a scientifictheory makes a commitment to a kind of naturalism...11

This is why the champions of the theory of evolution still go on de-fending it in spite of all the evidence to the contrary. One thing they can-not agree on however is which of the different models proposed for therealisation of evolution is the "right" one. One of the most important ofthese models is the fantastic scenario known as "punctuated equilibrium".

Trial and Error: Punctuated Equilibrium

Most of the scientists who believe in evolution accept the neo-Dar-winist theory of slow, gradual evolution. In recent decades, however, a dif-ferent model has been proposed. Called "punctuated equilibrium", thismodel maintains that living species came about not through a series ofsmall changes, as Darwin had maintained, but by sudden, large ones.

The first vociferous defenders of this notion appeared at the begin-ning of the 1970s. Two American paleontologists, Niles Eldredge andStephen Jay Gould, were well aware that the claims of the neo-Darwinisttheory were absolutely refuted by the fossil record. Fossils proved that liv-ing organisms did not originate by gradual evolution, but appeared sud-denly and fully-formed. Neo-Darwinistswere living with the fond hope-they still do-that the lost transitional forms would one daybe found. Realising that this hope wasgroundless, Eldredge and Gould were never-theless unable to abandon their evolutionarydogma, so they put forward a new model:punctuated equilibrium. This is the claim thatevolution did not take place as a result ofminor variations but rather in sudden andgreat changes.


Steph en Jay Gould

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A Brief History of the Theory

This model was nothing but a model for fantasies. For instance, Eu-ropean paleontologist O.H. Shindewolf, who led the way for Eldredge andGould, claimed that the first bird came out of a reptile egg, as a "gross mu-tation", that is, as a result of a huge "accident" that took place in the geneticstructure.12 According to the same theory, some land-dwelling animalscould have turned into giant whales having undergone a sudden and com-prehensive transformation. These claims, totally contradicting all the rulesof genetics, biophysics, and biochemistry are as scientific as the fairy talesabout frogs turning into princes! Nevertheless, being distressed by the cri-sis that the neo-Darwinist assertion was in, some evolutionist paleontolo-gists embraced this theory, which had the distinction of being even morebizarre than neo-Darwinism itself.

The only purpose of this model was to provide an explanation of thegaps in the fossil-record that the neo-Darwinist model could not explain.However, it is hardly rational to attempt to explain the fossil gap in theevolution of birds with a claim that "a bird popped all of a sudden out ofa reptile egg", because by the evolutionists' own admission, the evolutionof a species to another species requires a great and advantageous changein genetic information. However, no mutation whatsoever improves thegenetic information or adds new information to it. Mutations only derange


Today, tens of thousands of scientists around the world, particularly in the USA and Europe,defy the theory of evolution and have published many books on the invalidity of the theory.Above are a few examples.

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SEA STARPeriod: OrdovicianAge: 490 – 443 million years

SEQUOIA LEAFPeriod: EoceneAge: 50 millionyears

FROGHOPPERPeriod: Creta-ceous Age: 125 mil-lion years

BIRCH LEAFPeriod: Eocene Age: 50 million years

Living Fossils

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A Brief History of the Theory

genetic information. Thus the "gross mutations" imagined by the punctu-ated equilibrium model would only cause "gross", that is "great", reduc-tions and impairments in the genetic information.

Moreover, the model of "punctuated equilibrium" collapses from thevery first step by its inability to address the question of the origin of life,which is also the question that refutes the neo-Darwinist model from theoutset. Since not even a single protein can have originated by chance, thedebate over whether organisms made up of trillions of those proteins haveundergone a "punctuated" or "gradual" evolution is senseless.

In spite of this, the model that comes to mind when "evolution" is atissue today is still neo-Darwinism. In the chapters that follow, we will firstexamine two imaginary mechanisms of the neo-Darwinist model and thenlook at the fossil record to test this model. After that, we will dwell uponthe question of the origin of life, which invalidates both the neo-Darwin-ist model and all other evolutionist models such as "evolution by leaps".

Before doing so, it may be useful to remind that the reality we will beconfronting at every stage is that the evolutionary scenario is a fairy-tale,a great deceit that is totally at variance with the real world. It is a scenariothat has been used to deceive the world for 140 years. Thanks to the latestscientific discoveries, its continued defence has at last become impossible.


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The neo-Darwinist model, which we shall take as the mainstreamtheory of evolution today, argues that life has evolved through twonatural mechanisms: "natural selection" and "mutation". The the-

ory basically asserts that natural selection and mutation are two comple-mentary mechanisms. The origin of evolutionary modifications lies inrandom mutations that take place in the genetic structures of living things.The traits brought about by mutations are selected by the mechanism ofnatural selection, and by this means living things evolve.

When we look further into this theory, we find that there is no suchevolutionary mechanism. Neither natural selection nor mutations makeany contribution at all to the transformation of different species into oneanother, and the claim that they do is completely unfounded.

Natural SelectionAs process of nature, natural selection was familiar to biologists be-

fore Darwin, who defined it as a "mechanism that keeps species unchang-ing without being corrupted". Darwin was the first person to put forwardthe assertion that this process had evolutionary power and he then erectedhis entire theory on the foundation of this assertion. The name he gave tohis book indicates that natural selection was the basis of Darwin's theory:The Origin of Species, by means of Natural Selection...

However since Darwin's time, there has not been a single shred of ev-idence put forward to show that natural selection causes living things toevolve. Colin Patterson, the senior paleontologist of the British Museum ofNatural History in London and a widely known evolutionist, stresses thatnatural selection has never been observed to have the ability to causethings to evolve:

No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection.No one has ever got near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwin-ism is about this question.13

Im ag i nary Mech a nisms

of Ev o lu tion


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Im ag i nary Mech a nisms of Ev o lu tion 53

Natural selection holds that those living things that are more suited tothe natural conditions of their habitats will prevail by having offspringthat will survive, whereas those that are unfit will disappear. For example,in a deer herd under the threat of wild animals, naturally those that canrun faster will survive. That is true. But no matter how long this processgoes on, it will not transform those deer into another living species. Thedeer will always remain deer.

When we look at the few incidents the evolutionists have put forth asobserved examples of natural selection, we see that these are nothing but asimple attempt to hoodwink.

"Industrial Melanism"In 1986 Douglas Futuyma published a book, The Biology of Evolution,

which is accepted as one of the sources explaining the theory of evolutionby natural selection in the most explicit way. The most famous of his ex-amples on this subject is about the colour of the moth population, whichappeared to darken during the Industrial Revolution in England. It is pos-sible to find the story of the Industrial Melanism in almost all evolutionistbiology books, not just in Futuyma's book. The story is based on a series ofexperiments conducted by the British physicist and biologist Bernard Ket-tlewell in the 1950s, and can be summarised as follows:

According to the account, around the onset of the Industrial Revolu-tion in England, the colour of the tree barks around Manchester was quitelight. Because of this, dark-coloured (melanic) moths resting on those treescould easily be noticed by the birds that fed on them and therefore theyhad very little chance of survival. Fifty years later, in woodlands where in-dustrial pollution has killed the lichens, the barks of the trees had dark-ened, and now the light-colored moths became the most hunted, since theywere the most easily noticed. As a result, the proportion of light-colouredmoths to dark-coloured moths decreased. Evolutionists believe this to be agreat piece of evidence for their theory. They take refuge and solace inwindow-dressing, showing how light-coloured moths "evolved" intodark-coloured ones.

However, even if we assume these to be correct, it should be quiteclear that they can in no way be used as evidence for the theory of evolu-tion, since no new form arose that had not existed before. Dark coloredmoths had existed in the moth population before the Industrial Revolu-

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tion. Only the relative proportions of the existing moth varieties in thepopulation changed. The moths had not acquired a new trait or organ,which would cause "speciation". In order for one moth species to turn intoanother living species, a bird for example, new additions would have hadto be made to its genes. That is, an entirely separate genetic programwould have had to be loaded so as to include information about the phys-ical traits of the bird.

This is the answer to be given to the evolutionist story of IndustrialMelanism. However, there is a more interesting side to the story: Not justit* interpretation, but the story itself is flawed. As molecular biologistJonathan Wells explains in his book Icons of Evolution, the story of the pep-pered moths, which is included in every evolutionist biology book and hastherefore, become an "icon" in this sense, does not reflect the truth. Wellsdiscusses in his book how Bernard Kettlewell's experiment, which isknown as the "experimental proof" of the story, is actually a scientific scan-dal. Some basic elements of this scandal are:

• Many experiments conducted after Kettlewell's revealed that onlyone type of these moths rested on tree trunks, and all other types pre-ferred to rest beneath small, horizontal branches. Since 1980 it has be-

Industrial Melanism is certainly not an evidence for evolution because the process didnot produce any new species of moths. The selection was only among already exist-ing varieties. Moreover, the classical story of melanism is deceptive. The textbookpictures above (portrayed as genuine photos) are in fact of dead specimens glued orpinned to tree trunks by evolutionists.

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Im ag i nary Mech a nisms of Ev o lu tion 55

come clear that peppered moths do not normally rest on tree trunks.In 25 years of fieldwork, many scientists such as Cyril Clarke andRory Howlett, Michael Majerus, Tony Liebert, and Paul Brakefieldconcluded that "in Kettlewell's experiment, moths were forced to actatypically, therefore, the test results could not be accepted as scien-tific". • Scientists who tested Kettlewell's conclusions came up with an evenmore interesting result: Although the number of light moths wouldbe expected to be larger in the less polluted regions of England, thedark moths there numbered four times as many as the light ones. Thismeant that there was no correlation between the moth populationand the tree trunks as claimed by Kettlewell and repeated by almostall evolutionist sources. • As the research deepened, the scandal changed dimension: "Themoths on tree trunks" photographed by Kettlewell, were actuallydead moths. Kettlewell used dead specimens glued or pinned to treetrunks and then photographed them. In truth, there was almost nopossibility of taking such a picture as the moths rested not on treetrunks but underneath the leaves.14

These facts were uncovered by the scientific community only in thelate 1990s. The collapse of the myth of Industrial Melanism, which hadbeen one of the most treasured subjects in "Introduction to Evolution"courses in universities for decades, greatly disappointed evolutionists.One of them, Jerry Coyne, remarked:

My own reaction resembles the dismay attending my discovery, at the age ofsix, that it was my father and not Santa who brought the presents on Christ-mas Eve.15

Thus, "the most famous example of natural selection" was relegatedto the trash-heap of history as a scientific scandal which was inevitable, be-cause natural selection is not an "evolutionary mechanism," contrary towhat evolutionists claim. It is capable neither of adding a new organ to aliving organism, nor of removing one, nor of changing an organism of onespecies into that of another.

Why Natural Selection Cannot Explain Complexity?There is nothing that natural selection contributes to the theory of

evolution, because this mechanism can never increase or improve the ge-

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netic information of a species. Neither can it transform one species intoanother: a starfish into a fish, a fish into a frog, a frog into a crocodile, or acrocodile into a bird. The biggest defender of punctuated equilibrium,Stephen Jay Gould, refers to this impasse of natural selection as follows;

The essence of Darwinism lies in a single phrase: natural selection is the cre-ative force of evolutionary change. No one denies that selection will play anegative role in eliminating the unfit. Darwinian theories require that it cre-ate the fit as well.16

Another of the misleading methods that evolutionists employ on theissue of natural selection is their effort to present this mechanism as con-scious. However, natural selection has no consciousness. It does not pos-sess a will that can decide what is good and what is bad for living things.As a result, one cannot explain biological systems and organs that possessthe feature of "irreducible complexity" by natural selection. These systemsand organs are composed of a great number of parts cooperating together,and are of no use if even one of these parts is missing or defective. (For ex-ample, the human eye does not function unless it exists with all its compo-nents intact). Therefore, the will that brings all these parts together shouldbe able to foresee the future and aim directly at the advantage that is to beacquired at the final stage. Since natural selection has no consciousness orwill, it can do no such thing. This fact, which demolishes the foundationsof the theory of evolution, also worried Darwin, who wrote: "If it could bedemonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possiblyhave been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, mytheory would absolutely break down." 17

Natural selection serves as a mechanism of eliminating weak individuals within aspecies. It is a conservative force which preserves the existing species from degener-ation. Beyond that, it has no capability of transforming one species to another.

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Im ag i nary Mech a nisms of Ev o lu tion 57

Through natural selection only the disfigured, weak, or unfit individ-uals of a species are selected out. New species, new genetic information, ornew organs cannot be produced. That is, living things cannot evolvethrough natural selection. Darwin accepted this reality by saying: "Naturalselection can do nothing until favourable variations chance to occur".18

This is why neo-Darwinism has had to elevate mutations next to naturalselection as the "cause of beneficial changes". However as we shall see,mutations can only be "the cause for harmful changes".

Mutations Mutations are defined as breaks or replacements taking place in the

DNA molecule, which is found in the nuclei of the cells of a living organ-ism and which contains all its genetic information. These breaks or re-placements are the result of external effects such as radiation or chemicalaction. Every mutation is an "accident" and either damages the nucleotidesmaking up the DNA or changes their locations. Most of the time, theycause so much damage and modification that the cell cannot repair them.

Mutation, which evolutionists frequently hide behind, is not a magicwand that transforms living organisms into a more advanced and perfectform. The direct effect of mutations is harmful. The changes effected bymutations can only be like those experienced by people in Hiroshima, Na-gasaki, and Chernobyl: that is, death, disability, and sickness…

The reason for this is very simple: DNA has a very complex structure,and random effects can only damage the organism. B.G. Ranganathanstates:

Mutations add no new infor-mation to an organism'sDNA: As a result of muta-tions, the particles makingup the genetic informationare either torn from theirplaces, destroyed, or carriedoff to different places. Muta-tions cannot make a livingthing acquire a new organ ora new trait. They only causeabnormalities like a legsticking out of the back, oran ear from the abdomen.

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First, genuine mutations are very rare in nature. Secondly, most mutationsare harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the struc-ture of genes; any random change in a highly ordered system will be for theworse, not for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake ahighly ordered structure such as a building, there would be a random changein the framework of the building which, in all probability, would not be animprovement. 19

Not surprisingly, no useful mutation has been so far observed. Allmutations have proved to be harmful. The evolutionist scientist WarrenWeaver comments on the report prepared by the Committee on GeneticEffects of Atomic Radiation, which had been formed to investigate muta-tions that might have been caused by the nuclear weapons used in the Sec-ond World War:

Many will be puzzled about the statement that practically all known mutant


An ten na Leg

A disastrous effectof mutations on the human body. (right)

The boy at left is aChernobyl nuclearplant accident vic-tim.

Left: A normal fruit fly (drosophila). Right: A fruit fly with its legs jutting from its head; a mutationinduced by radiation.



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Im ag i nary Mech a nisms of Ev o lu tion 59

genes are harmful. For mutations are a necessary part of the process of evo-lution. How can a good effect - evolution to higher forms of life - results frommutations practically all of which are harmful? 20

Every effort put into "generating a useful mutation" has resulted infailure. For decades, evolutionists carried out many experiments to pro-duce mutations in fruit flies as these insects reproduce very rapidly and somutations would show up quickly. Generation upon generation of theseflies were mutated, yet no useful mutation was ever observed. The evolu-tionist geneticist Gordon Taylor writes thus:

It is a striking, but not much mentioned fact that, though geneticists havebeen breeding fruit-flies for sixty years or more in labs all around the world-flies which produce a new generation every eleven days-they have never yetseen the emergence of a new species or even a new enzyme.21

Another researcher, Michael Pitman, comments on the failure of theexperiments carried out on fruit flies:

Morgan, Goldschmidt, Muller, and other geneticists have subjected genera-tions of fruit flies to extreme conditions of heat, cold, light, dark, and treat-ment by chemicals and radiation. All sorts of mutations, practically all trivialor positively deleterious, have been produced. Man-made evolution? Not re-ally: Few of the geneticists' monsters could have survived outside the bottlesthey were bred in. In practice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert to thewild type.22

The same holds true for man. All mutations that have been observedin human beings have had deleterious results. On this issue, evolutioniststhrow up a smokescreen and try to enlist examples of even such deleteri-ous mutations as "evidence for evolution". All mutations that take place inhumans result in physical deformities, in infirmities such as mongolism,Down syndrome, albinism, dwarfism or cancer. These mutations are pre-sented in evolutionist textbooks as examples of "the evolutionary mecha-nism at work". Needless to say, a process that leaves people disabled orsick cannot be "an evolutionary mechanism"-evolution is supposed to pro-duce forms that are better fitted to survive.

To summarise, there are three main reasons why mutations cannot bepressed into the service of supporting evolutionists' assertions:l) The direct effect of mutations is harmful: Since they occur randomly,they almost always damage the living organism that undergoes them. Rea-son tells us that unconscious intervention in a perfect and complex struc-

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ture will not improve that structure, but will rather impair it. Indeed, no"useful mutation" has ever been observed.2) Mutations add no new information to an organism's DNA: As a resultof mutations, the particles making up the genetic information are eithertorn from their places, destroyed, or carried off to different places. Muta-tions cannot make a living thing acquire a new organ or a new trait. Theyonly cause abnormalities like a leg sticking out of the back, or an ear fromthe abdomen.3) In order for a mutation to be transferred to the subsequent generation,it has to have taken place in the reproductive cells of the organism: Arandom change that occurs in a cell or organ of the body cannot be trans-ferred to the next generation. For example, a human eye altered by the ef-fects of radiation or by other causes will not be passed on to subsequentgenerations.

It is impossible for living beings to have evolved, because there existsno mechanism in nature that can cause evolution. Furthermore, this con-clusion agrees with the evidence of the fossil record, which does notdemonstrate the existence of a process of evolution, but rather just the con-trary.


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The Fos sil Record

Re futes Ev o lu tion


According to the theory of evolution, every living species hasemerged from a predecessor. One species which existed previ-ously turned into something else over time and all species have

come into being in this way. According to the theory, this transformationproceeds gradually over millions of years.

If this were the case, then innumerable intermediate species shouldhave lived during the immense period of time when these transformationswere supposedly occurring. For instance, there should have lived in thepast some half-fish/half-reptile creatures which had acquired some reptil-ian traits in addition to the fish traits they already had. Or there shouldhave existed some reptile/bird creatures, which had acquired some aviantraits in addition to the reptilian traits they already possessed. Evolution-ists refer to these imaginary creatures, which they believe to have lived inthe past, as "transitional forms".

If such animals had really existed, there would have been millions,even billions, of them. More importantly, the remains of these creaturesshould be present in the fossil record. The number of these transitionalforms should have been even greater than that of present animal species,and their remains should be found all over the world. In The Origin ofSpecies, Darwin accepted this fact and explained:

If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking most closelyall of the species of the same group together must assuredly have existed...Consequently evidence of their former existence could be found onlyamongst fossil remains.23

Even Darwin himself was aware of the absence of such transitionalforms. He hoped that they would be found in the future. Despite his opti-mism, he realised that these missing intermediate forms were the biggeststumbling-block for his theory. That is why he wrote the following in thechapter of the The Origin of Species entitled "Difficulties on Theory":

…Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gra-dations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is

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Liv ing Fos sils Refute Evolution

HERRINGPeriod: EoceneAge: 54-37 million years

Fossils are proof that evolution never happened. As the fossil record shows, livingthings came into being in a single moment, with all the characteristics theypossess and never altered in the least for so long as the species survived. Fishhave always existed as fish, insects as insects and reptiles as reptiles. There isno scientific validity to the claim that species develop gradually. Almighty Allahcreated all living things.

SEA URCHINPeriod: CarboniferousAge: 295 million years


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SUN FISHPeriod: Eo cene Age: 54 – 37 million years

VEEVILPeriod: OligoceneAge: 25 million years

SEQUOIA LEAFPeriod: Eo cene Age: 50 million years


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JUVENILE RABBITPeriod: OligoceneAge: 30 million years

TURTLEPeriod: CretaceousAge: 95 million years

POPLAR LEAFPeriod: EoceneAge: 54-37 million years

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The Fos sil Record Re futes Ev o lu tion 65

not all nature in confusion instead of the species being, as we see them, welldefined?… But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must haveexisted, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in thecrust of the earth?… Why then is not every geological formation and everystratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not revealany such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvi-ous and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory. 24

The only explanation Darwin could come up with to counter this objec-tion was the argument that the fossil record uncovered so far was inade-quate. Darwin asserted that when the fossil record had been studied in detail,the missing links would be found.

Believing in Darwin's prophecy, evolutionist paleontologists havebeen digging up fossils and searching for missing links all over the worldsince the middle of the 19th century. Despite their best efforts, no transi-tional forms have yet been uncovered. All the fossils unearthed in exca-vations have shown that, contrary to the beliefs of evolutionists, lifeappeared on earth all of a sudden and fully-formed. Trying to prove theirtheory, evolutionists have instead unwittingly caused it to collapse.

A famous British paleontologist, Derek V. Ager, admits this fact eventhough he is an evolutionist:

The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether atthe level of orders or of species, we find-over and over again-not gradualevolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of an-other.25

Another evolutionist paleontologist Mark Czarnecki comments asfollows:

A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the im-prints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations.This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediatevariants - instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomalyhas fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God.26

These gaps in the fossil record cannot be explained by saying that suf-ficient fossils have not yet been found, but that they one day will be. An-other American scholar, Robert Wesson, states in his 1991 book BeyondNatural Selection, that "the gaps in the fossil record are real and meaning-ful". He elaborates this claim in this way:

The gaps in the record are real, however. The absence of a record of any im-portant branching is quite phenomenal. Species are usually static, or nearly

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so, for long periods, species seldom and genera never show evolution intonew species or genera but replacement of one by another, and change is moreor less abrupt.27

Life Emerged on Earth Suddenly and in Complex Forms When terrestrial strata and the fossil record are examined, it is to be

seen that all living organisms appeared simultaneously. The oldest stra-tum of the earth in which fossils of living creatures have been found is thatof the Cambrian, which has an estimated age of 500-550 million years.

The living creatures found in the strata belonging to the Cambrian pe-riod emerged all of a sudden in the fossil record-there are no pre-existingancestors. The fossils found in Cambrian rocks belonged to snails, trilo-bites, sponges, earthworms, jellyfish, sea hedgehogs, and other complexinvertebrates. This wide mosaic of living organisms made up of such agreat number of complex creatures emerged so suddenly that this miracu-lous event is referred to as the "Cambrian Explosion" in geological litera-ture.

Most of the creatures in this layer have complex systems have com-plex systems and advanced structures, such as eyes, gills, and circulatorysystems, exactly the same as those in present-day specimens. For instance,the double-lensed, combed eye structure of trilobites is a wonder of cre-ation. David Raup, a professor of geology in Harvard, Rochester, andChicago Universities, says: "the trilobites 450 million years ago used anoptimal design which would require a well trained and imaginative op-tical engineer to develop today".28


The fossils unearthed in Cambrian rocks belonged to complex invertebratespecies like snails, trilobites, sponges, worms, jelly fish, starfish, marine crus-taceans and sea lilies. Most interestingly, all of these distinct species emerged allof a sudden. For that reason, this miraculous phenomenon is referred to as the“Cambrian Explosion” in geological literature.

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The Fos sil Record Re futes Ev o lu tion

These complex invertebrates emerged suddenly and completelywithout having any link or any transitional form between them and theunicellular organisms, which were the only life forms on earth prior tothem.

Richard Monastersky, a science journalist at Science News, one of thepopular publications of evolutionist literature, states the following aboutthe "Cambrian Explosion", which is a deathtrap for evolutionary theory:

A half-billion years ago, the remarkably complex forms of animals we seetoday suddenly appeared. This moment, right at the start of Earth's Cam-brian Period, some 550 million years ago, marks the evolutionary explosionthat filled the seas with the earth's first complex creatures. ...the large animal


The trilobites that appearedin the Cambrian period all ofa sudden have an extremely

complex eye structure. Consisting of millions ofhoneycomb-shaped tiny particles and a double-lens sys-

tem, this eye "has an optimal design which would require awell-trained and imaginative optical engineer to develop today" in

the words of David Raup, a professor of geology.This eye emerged 530 million years ago in a perfect state. No doubt, the sudden ap-pearance of such a wondrous structure cannot be explained by evolution and it provesthe actuality of creation.Moreover, the honeycomb eye structure of the trilobite has survived to our own daywithout a single change. Some insects such as bees and dragon flies have the sameeye structure as did the trilobite.* This situation disproves the evolutionary thesis thatliving things evolved progressively from the primitive to the complex.

(*) R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Physiology of Seeing,

Oxford University Press, 1995, p.31



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phyla of today were present already in the early Cambrian ...and they wereas distinct from each other as they are today.29

Deeper investigation into the Cambrian Explosion shows what agreat dilemma it creates for the theory of evolution. Recent findings indi-cate that almost all phyla, the most basic animal divisions, emergedabruptly in the Cambrian period. An article published in Science magazinein 2001 says: "The beginning of the Cambrian period, some 545 millionyears ago, saw the sudden appearance in the fossil record of almost all themain types of animals (phyla) that still dominate the biota today".30 Thesame article notes that for such complex and distinct living groups to beexplained according to the theory of evolution, very rich fossil beds show-ing a gradual developmental process should have been found, but this hasnot yet proved possible:

This differential evolution and dispersal, too, must have required a previoushistory of the group for which there is no fossil record. 31

How the earth came to overflow with such a great number of animalspecies all of a sudden, and how these distinct types of species with nocommon ancestors could have emerged, is a question that remains unan-swered by evolutionists. The Oxford University zoologist Richard


INTERESTING SPINES: One of the creatures that suddenly emerged in the CambrianAge is Hallucigenia (above, left). This and many other Cambrian fossils have hard,sharp spines to protect them from attack. One thing that evolutionists cannot ac-count for is how these creatures should have such an effective defense system whenthere were no predators around. The lack of predators makes it impossible to explainthese spines in terms of natural selection.

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The Fos sil Record Re futes Ev o lu tion

Dawkins, one of the foremost advocates of evolutionist thought in theworld, comments on this reality that undermines the very foundation of allthe arguments he has been defending:

For example the Cambrian strata of rocks... are the oldest ones in which wefind most of the major invertebrate groups. And we find many of them al-ready in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It isas though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history.32

As Dawkins is forced to acknowledge, the Cambrian Explosion isstrong evidence for creation, because creation is the only way to explainthe fully-formed emergence of life on earth. Douglas Futuyma, a promi-nent evolutionist biologist admits this fact: "Organisms either appeared onthe earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not, they must havedeveloped from pre-existing species by some process of modification. Ifthey did appear in a fully developed state, they must indeed have beencreated by some omnipotent intelligence." 33 Darwin himself recognisedthe possibility of this when he wrote: "If numerous species, belonging tothe same genera or families, have really started into life all at once, the factwould be fatal to the theory of descent with slow modification throughnatural selection."34 The Cambrian Period is nothing more or less thanDarwin's "fatal stroke". This is why the Swedish evolutionist paleoanthro-pologist Stefan Bengtson, who confesses the lack of transitional links whiledescribing the Cambrian Age, makes the following comment: "Baffling (andembarrasing) to Darwin, this event still dazzles us".35

Obviously, the fossil record indicates that living things did not evolvefrom primitive to the advanced forms, but instead emerged all of a suddenand in a perfect state. In short, living beings did not come into existence byevolution, they were created.

Molecular Comparisons Deepen Evolution's Cambrian Impasse

Another fact that puts evolutionists into a deep quandary about theCambrian Explosion is the comparisons between different living taxa. Theresults of these comparisons reveal that animal taxa considered to be "closerelatives" by evolutionists until quite recently, are genetically very differ-ent, which puts the "intermediate form" hypothesis, that only exists theo-retically, into an even greater quandary. An article published in the


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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2000 reports thatDNA analyses have displaced taxa that used to be considered "intermedi-ate forms" in the past:

DNA sequence analysis dictates new interpretation of phylogenic trees. Taxathat were once thought to represent successive grades of complexity at thebase of the metazoan tree are being displaced to much higher positions in-side the tree. This leaves no evolutionary "intermediates" and forces us to re-think the genesis of bilaterian complexity...36

In the same article, evolutionist writers note that some taxa whichwere considered "intermediate" between groups such as sponges, cnidari-ans and ctenophores can no longer be considered as such because of newgenetic findings, and that they have "lost hope" of constructing such evo-lutionary family trees:

The new molecular based phylogeny has several important implications.Foremost among them is the disappearance of "intermediate" taxa betweensponges, cnidarians, ctenophores, and the last common ancestor of bilateri-ans or "Urbilateria." ...A corollary is that we have a major gap in the stemleading to the Urbilataria. We have lost the hope, so common in older evolu-tionary reasoning, of reconstructing the morphology of the "coelomate ances-tor" through a scenario involving successive grades of increasing complexitybased on the anatomy of extant "primitive" lineages.37


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Tale of Tran si tion from

Wa ter to Land


Evolutionists assume that the sea invertebrates that appear in theCambrian stratum somehow evolved into fish in tens of millionyears. However, just as Cambrian invertebrates have no ancestors,

there are no transitional links indicating that an evolution occurred be-tween these invertebrates and fish. It should be noted that invertebratesand fish have enormous structural differences. Invertebrates have theirhard tissues outside their bodies, whereas fish are vertebrates that havetheirs on the inside. Such an enormous "evolution" would have taken bil-lions of steps to be completed and there should be billions of transitionalforms displaying them.

Evolutionists have been digging fossil strata for about 140 years look-ing for these hypothetical forms. They have found millions of invertebratefossils and millions of fish fossils; yet nobody has ever found even one thatis midway between them.

An evolutionist paleontologist, Gerald T. Todd, admits a similar factin an article titled "Evolution of the Lung and the Origin of Bony Fishes":

All three subdivisions of bony fishes first appear in the fossil record at ap-proximately the same time. They are already widely divergent morphologi-

According to the hypothetical scenario of "from sea to land", some fish felt the need to pass from sea to land be-cause of feeding problems. This claim is "supported" by such speculative drawings.


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410-million-year-old coelacanth fossil. Evolutionists claimedthat it was the transitional form representing the transition fromwater to land.

Living examples of this fish have been caught many times since 1938,providing a good example of the extent of the speculations that evolu-tionists engage in.


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Tale of Transition from Water to Land

cally, and are heavily armored. How did they originate? What allowed themto diverge so widely? How did they all come to have heavy armour? Andwhy is there no trace of earlier, intermediate forms?38

The evolutionary scenario goes one step further and argues that fish,who evolved from invertebrates then transformed into amphibians. Butthis scenario also lacks evidence. There is not even a single fossil verifyingthat a half-fish/half-amphibian creature has ever existed. Robert L. Car-




Just as the evolutionary theory cannot ex-plain basic classes of living things suchas fish and reptiles, neither can it explain the origin of the orders within

these classes. For example, turtles, which is a reptilian order, appear in thefossil record all of a sudden with their unique shells. To quote from an evolu-tionary source: “this highly successful order is obscured by the lack of earlyfossils, although turtles leave more and better fossil remains than do othervertebrates. … Intermediates between turtles and cotylosaurs, … reptiles fromwhich turtles [supposedly] sprang, are entirely lacking.” (Encyclopaedia Bri-tannica Online, “Turtle”)There is no difference between the fossils of ancient turtles and the livingmembers of this species today. Simply put, turtles have not "evolved"; theyhave always been turtles since they were created that way.

Turtle fossil aged 100 mil-lion years: No differentfrom its modern-day coun-terpart. (The Dawn of Life,Orbis Pub., London 1972)

To the side can be seen a 45-million-year-oldfreshwater turtle fossil found in Germany. Tothe left are the remains of the oldest known seaturtle, found in Brazil: This 110-million-year-oldfossil is identical to specimens living today.

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E volutionists claim that oneday, a species dwelling inwater somehow stepped onto

land and was transformed into a land-dwelling species.

There are a number of obvious factsthat render such a transition impossi-ble:

1. Weight-bearing: Sea-dwellingcreatures have no problem in bearingtheir own weight in the sea.

However, most land-dwelling crea-tures consume 40% of their energyjust in carrying their bodies around.Creatures making the transition fromwater to land would at the same timehave had to develop new muscularand skeletal systems (!) to meet thisenergy need, and this could not havecome about by chance mutations.

2. Heat Retention: On land, the tem-perature can change quickly, andfluctuates over a wide range. Land-dwelling creatures possess a physi-cal mechanism that can withstandsuch great temperature changes.However, in the sea, the temperaturechanges slowly and within a narrowerrange. A living organism with a bodysystem regulated according to theconstant temperature of the seawould need to acquire a protectivesystem to ensure minimum harm fromthe temperature changes on land. It ispreposterous to claim that fish ac-quired such a system by random mu-tations as soon as they stepped ontoland.

3. Water: Essential to metabolism,water needs to be used economically

due to its relative scarcity on land.For instance,, the skin has to be ableto permit a certain amount of waterloss, while also preventing excessiveevaporation. That is why land-dwelling creatures experience thirst,something that sea-dwelling crea-tures do not. For this reason, the skinof sea-dwelling animals is not suit-able for a nonaquatic habitat.

4. Kidneys: Sea-dwelling organismsdischarge waste materials, especiallyammonia, by means of their aquaticenvironment. On land, water has to beused economically. This is why theseliving beings have a kidney system.Thanks to the kidneys, ammonia isstored by being converted into ureaand the minimum amount of water isused during its excretion. In addition,new systems are needed to providethe kidney's functioning. In short, inorder for the passage from water toland to have occurred, living thingswithout a kidney would have had todevelop a kidney system all at once.

5. Respiratory system: Fish"breathe" by taking in oxygen dis-solved in water that they passthrough their gills. They canot livemore than a few minutes out of water.In order to survive on land, theywould have to acquire a perfect lungsystem all of a sudden.

It is most certainly impossible thatall these dramatic physiologicalchanges could have happened in thesame organism at the same time, andall by chance.

Why Tran si tion From Wa ter to Land is Im pos si ble

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Tale of Transition from Water to Land

roll, an evolutionary palaeontologist and authority on vertebrate palaeon-tology, is obliged to accept this. He has written in his classic work, Verte-brate Paleontology and Evolution, that "The early reptiles were very differentfrom amphibians and their ancestors have not been found yet." In hisnewer book, Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, published in1997, he admits that "We have no intermediate fossils between rhipidist-ian fish and early amphibians.”39 Two evolutionist paleontologists, Col-bert and Morales, comment on the three basic classes of amphibians-frogs,salamanders, and caecilians:

There is no evidence of any Paleozoic amphibians combining the charac-teristics that would be expected in a single common ancestor. The oldestknown frogs, salamanders, and caecilians are very similar to their living de-scendants.40

Until about fifty years ago, evolutionists thought that such a creatureindeed existed. This fish, called a coelacanth, which was estimated to be410 million years of age, was put forward as a transitional form with aprimitive lung, a developed brain, a digestive and a circulatory systemready to function on land, and even a primitive walking mechanism.These anatomical interpretations were accepted as undisputed truthamong scientific circles until the end of the 1930's. The coelacanth waspresented as a genuine transitional form that proved the evolutionarytransition from water to land.

However on December 22, 1938, a very interesting discovery wasmade in the Indian Ocean. A living member of the coelacanth family, pre-viously presented as a transitional form that had become extinct seventymillion years ago, was caught! The discovery of a "living" prototype of thecoelacanth undoubtedly gave evolutionists a severe shock. The evolution-ist paleontologist J.L.B. Smith said that "If I'd met a dinosaur in the street Iwouldn't have been more astonished".41 In the years to come, 200 coela-canths were caught many times in different parts of the world.

Living coelacanths revealed how far the evolutionists could go inmaking up their imaginary scenarios. Contrary to what had been claimed,coelacanths had neither a primitive lung nor a large brain. The organ thatevolutionist researchers had proposed as a primitive lung turned out to benothing but a lipid pouch.42 Furthermore, the coelacanth, which was in-troduced as "a reptile candidate getting prepared to pass from sea toland", was in reality a fish that lived in the depths of the oceans and neverapproached nearer than 180 metres from the surface.43


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The Imaginary Evolution

of Birds and Mam mals


According to the theory of evolution, life originated and evolved inthe sea and then was transported onto land by amphibians. Thisevolutionary scenario also suggests that amphibians evolved

into reptiles, creatures living only on land. This scenario is again implausi-ble, due to the enormous structural differences between these two classesof animals. For instance, the amphibian egg is created for developing inwater whereas the amniotic egg is created for developing on land. A "stepby step" evolution of an amphibian is out of the question, because withouta perfect and fully-formed egg, it is not possible for a species to survive.Moreover, as usual, there is no evidence of transitional forms that weresupposed to link amphibians with reptiles. Evolutionist paleontologistand an authority on vertebrate paleontology, Robert L. Carroll has to ac-cept that "the early reptiles were very different from amphibians andthat their ancestors could not be found yet."44

Yet the hopelessly doomed scenarios of the evolutionists are not overyet. There still remains the problem of making these creatures fly! Sinceevolutionists believe that birds must somehow have been evolved, they as-sert that they were transformed from reptiles. However, none of the dis-tinct mechanisms of birds, which have a completely different structurefrom land-dwelling animals, can be explained by gradual evolution. Firstof all, the wings, which are the exceptional traits of birds, are a great im-passe for the evolutionists. One of the Turkish evolutionists, Engin Korur,confesses the impossibility of the evolution of wings:

The common trait of the eyes and the wings is that they can only function ifthey are fully developed. In other words, a halfway-developed eye cannotsee; a bird with half-formed wings cannot fly. How these organs came intobeing has remained one of the mysteries of nature that needs to be enlight-ened.45

The question of how the perfect structure of wings came into being asa result of consecutive haphazard mutations remains completely unan-

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The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals

swered. There is no way to explain how the front arms of a reptile couldhave changed into perfectly functioning wings as a result of a distortion inits genes (mutation).

Moreover, just having wings is not sufficient for a land organism tofly. Land-dwelling organisms are devoid of many other structural mecha-nisms that birds use for flying. For example, the bones of birds are muchlighter than those of land-dwelling organisms. Their lungs function in avery different way. They have a different muscular and skeletal systemand a very specialised heart-circulatory system. These features are pre-req-uisites of flying needed at least as much as wings. All these mechanismshad to exist at the same time and altogether; they could not have formed


The anatomy of birds is very different from that of reptiles, their supposed ances-tors. Bird lungs function in a totally different way from those of land-dwelling ani-mals. Land-dwelling animals breathe in and out from the same air vessel. In birds,while the air enters into the lung from the front, it goes out from the back. Allahcreated this distinct system specially for birds, which need great amounts of oxy-gen during flight. It is impossible for such a structure to evolve from the reptilelung.

Rep tile lungAvi an lung

bron chia

al ve ol

In Out

par a bron chia




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Bird Feathers: The Structure that Evolution Fails to Explain

The theory of evolution, whichclaims that birds evolved from rep-tiles, is unable to explain the huge

differences between these two differentliving classes. In terms of such featuresas their skeleton structure, lung systems,and warm-blooded metabolism, birds arevery different from reptiles. Another traitthat poses an insurmountable gap be-tween birds and reptiles is the feathers ofbirds which have a form entirely peculiarto them.

The bodies of reptiles are coveredwith scales, whereas the bodies of birdsare covered with feathers. Since evolu-tionists consider reptiles the ancestor ofbirds, they are obliged to claim that birdfeathers have evolved from reptile scales.However, there is no similarity betweenscales and feathers.

A professor of physiology and neuro-biology from the University of Connecti-cut, A.H. Brush, accepts this realityalthough he is an evolutionist: "Every fea-ture from gene structure and organiza-tion, to development, morphogenesis andtissue organization is different (in feath-ers and scales)."1 Moreover, Prof. Brushexamines the protein structure of birdfeathers and argues that it is "uniqueamong vertebrates".2

There is no fossil evidence to provethat bird feathers evolved from reptile

scales. On the contrary, "feathers appearsuddenly in the fossil record, as an'unde-niably unique' character distinguishingbirds" as Prof. Brush states.3 Besides, inreptiles, no epidermal structure has yetbeen detected that provides an origin forbird feathers.4

In 1996, paleontologists made abuzzabout fossils of a so-called feathered di-nosaur, called Sinosauropteryx. However,in 1997, it was revealed that these fossilshad nothing to do with birds and that theywere not avian feathers.5

On the other hand, when we examinebird feathers closely, we come across avery complex structure that cannot be ex-plained by any evolutionary process. Thefamous ornithologist Alan Feducciastates that "every feature of them hasaerodynamic functions. They are ex-tremely light, have the ability to lift upwhich increases in lower speeds, andmay return to their previous position veryeasily". Then he continues, "I cannot re-ally understand how an organ perfectlydesigned for flight may have emerged foranother need at the beginning".6

The structure of feathers also com-pelled Charles Darwin to ponder them.Moreover, the perfect aesthetics of thepeafowl's feathers had made him "sick"(his own words). In a letter he wrote to AsaGray on April 3, 1860, he said "I rememberwell the time when the thought of the eyemade me cold all over, but I have got overthis stage of complaint..."And then contin-ued: "...and now trifling particulars ofstructure often make me very uncomfort-able. The sight of a feather in a peaco*ck'stail, whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick!"7

When bird feathers are examined indetail, it is seen that they are made upof thousands of tiny tendrils attachedto one another with hooks. This uniquestructure results in superior aerody-namic performance.

1- A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", Jour-nal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol.9, 1996, p.132

2- A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", p. 1313- Ibid.4- Ibid.5- "Plucking the Feathered Dinosaur", Science,

Vol. 278, 14 November 1997, p. 12296- Douglas Palmer, "Learning to Fly" (Review of

The Origin of and Evolution of Birds by Alan Fe-duccia, Yale University Press, 1996), New Scien-tist, Vol. 153, March, 1 1997, p. 44

7- Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Appeal toReason, Boston, Gambit, 1971, p. 101

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gradually by being "accumulated". This is why the theory asserting thatland organisms evolved into aerial organisms is completely fallacious.

All of these bring another question to the mind: even if we supposethis impossible story to be true, then why are the evolutionists unable tofind any "half-winged" or "single-winged" fossils to back up their story?

Another Alleged Transitional Form: ArchæopteryxEvolutionists pronounce the name of one single creature in response.

This is the fossil of a bird called Archæopteryx, one of the most widely-known so-called transitional forms among the very few that evolutionistsstill defend. Archæopteryx, the so-called ancestor of present-day birds ac-cording to evolutionists, lived approximately 150 million years ago. Thetheory holds that some small dinosaurs, such as Velociraptors orDromeosaurs, evolved by acquiring wings and then starting to fly. Thus,Archæopteryx is assumed to be a transitional form that branched off fromits dinosaur ancestors and started to fly for the first time.

However, the latest studies of Archæopteryx fossils indicate that thiscreature is absolutely not a transitional form,but an extinct species of bird, having some in-significant differences from present-day birds.

The thesis that Archæopteryx was a "half-bird" that could not fly perfectly was popularamong evolutionist circles until not long ago.The absence of a sternum (breastbone) in thiscreature was held up as the most important evi-dence that this bird could not fly properly. (Thesternum is a bone found under the thorax towhich the muscles required for flight are at-tached. In our day, this breastbone is observedin all flying and non-flying birds, and even in

According to evolutionists, some small dinosaurs,such as Velociraptors or Dromeosaurs, evolved by ac-quiring wings and then starting to fly. Thus,Archæopteryx is assumed to be a transitional form thatbranched off from its dinosaur ancestors and started tofly for the first time. This imaginary tale appears in al-most all evolutionist publications.



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bats, a flying mammal which belongs to a very different family.)However, the seventh Archæopteryx fossil, which was found in

1992, caused great astonishment among evolutionists. The reason was thatin this recently discovered fossil, the breastbone that was long assumed byevolutionists to be missing was discovered to have existed after all. Thisfossil was described in Nature magazine as follows:

The recently discovered seventh specimen of the Archæopteryx preserves apartial, rectangular sternum, long suspected but never previously docu-mented. This attests to its strong flight muscles.46

This discovery invalidated the mainstay of the claims thatArchæopteryx was a half-bird that could not fly properly.

Moreover, the structure of the bird's feathers became one of the mostimportant pieces of evidence confirming that Archæopteryx was a flyingbird in the real sense. The asymmetric feather structure of Archæopteryx isindistinguishable from that of birds living today, and indicates that itcould fly perfectly well. As the eminent paleontologist Carl O. Dunbarstates, "because of its feathers [Archæopteryx is] distinctly to be classed as abird." 47

1. Its feathers show that it was awarm-blooded creature able tofly.2. Its bones are hollow, like thoseof birds living today.3. Its teeth represent no evidencethat it evolved from reptiles. Manytoothed bird species lived in thepast.4. There are bird species livingtoday that possess similar clawson their wings. 5. The breastbone was observedin the seventh Archæopteryx fos-sil found recently. The presenceof this bone shows that just likepresent-day birds, it possessedpowerful flight muscles.

Archæopteryx exhibits the features of a full-fledged bird:






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The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals 81

Another fact that was revealed by the structure of Archæopteryx'sfeathers was its warm-blooded metabolism. As was discussed above, rep-tiles and dinosaurs are cold-blooded animals whose body heat fluctuateswith the temperature of their environment, rather than being homeostati-cally regulated. A very important function of the feathers on birds is themaintenance of a constant body temperature. The fact that Archæopteryxhad feathers showed that it was a real, warm-blooded bird that needed toregulate its body heat, in contrast to dinosaurs.

Speculations of Evolutionists: The Teeth and Claws of ArchæopteryxTwo important points evolutionist biologists rely on when claiming

Archæopteryx was a transitional form, are the claws on its wings and itsteeth.

It is true that Archæopteryx had claws on its wings and teeth in itsmouth, but these traits do not imply that the creature bore any kind of re-lationship to reptiles. Besides, two bird species living today, Taouraco andHoatzin, have claws which allow them to hold onto branches. These crea-tures are fully birds, with no reptilian characteristics. That is why it is com-pletely groundless to assert that Archæopteryx is a transitional form justbecause of the claws on its wings.

Neither do the teeth in Archæopteryx's beak imply that it is a transi-tional form. Evolutionists make a purposeful trickery by saying that theseteeth are reptile characteristics, since teeth are not a typical feature of rep-tiles. Today, some reptiles have teeth while others do not. Moreover,Archæopteryx is not the only bird species to possess teeth. It is true thatthere are no toothed birds in existence today, but when we look at the fos-sil record, we see that both during the time of Archæopteryx and after-wards, and even until fairly recently, a distinct bird genus existed thatcould be categorised as "birds with teeth".

The most important point is that the tooth structure of Archæopteryxand other birds with teeth is totally different from that of their allegedancestors, the dinosaurs. The well-known ornithologists L. D. Martin, J. D.Steward, and K. N. Whetstone observed that Archæopteryx and other simi-lar birds have teeth with flat-topped surfaces and large roots. Yet the teethof theropod dinosaurs, the alleged ancestors of these birds, are protuber-

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ant like saws and have narrow roots.48

These researchers also compared the wrist bones of Archæopteryx andtheir alleged ancestors, the dinosaurs, and observed no similarity betweenthem.49

Studies by anatomists like S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, and A.D. Walkerhave revealed that some of the similarities that John Ostrom and otherhave seen between Archæopteryx and dinosaurs were in reality misinter-pretations.50

All these findings indicate that Archæopteryx was not a transitionallink but only a bird that fell into a category that can be called "toothedbirds"

Archæopteryx and Other Bird FossilsWhile evolutionists have for decades

been proclaiming Archæopteryx to be thegreatest evidence for their scenario con-cerning the evolution of birds, some re-cently-found fossils invalidate thatscenario in other respects.

Lianhai Hou and Zhonghe Zhou, twopaleontologists at the Chinese Institute ofVertebrate Paleontology, discovered anew bird fossil in 1995, and named it Con-fuciusornis. This fossil is almost the sameage as Archæopteryx (around 140 millionyears), but has no teeth in its mouth. In ad-dition, its beak and feathers shared thesame features as today's birds. Confuciu-sornis has the same skeletal structure aspresent-day birds, but also has claws on itswings, just like Archæopteryx. Anotherstructure peculiar to birds called the "py-gostyle", which supports the tail feathers,was also found in Confuciusornis. In short,this fossil-which is the same age asArchæopteryx, which was previouslythought to be the earliest bird and was ac-

The bird named Confuciu-sornis is the same age as


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The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals

cepted as a semi-reptile-looks very much like abird living today. This fact has invalidated allthe evolutionist theses claiming Archæopteryx tobe the primitive ancestor of all birds.51

Another fossil unearthed in China, causedeven greater confusion. In November 1996, theexistence of a 130-million-year-old bird namedLiaoningornis was announced in Science by L.Hou, L. D. Martin, and Alan Feduccia.Liaoningornis had a breastbone to which themuscles for flight were attached, just as intoday’s birds. This bird was indistinguishablefrom present-day birds also in other respects, too. The only difference wasthe teeth in its mouth. This showed that birds with teeth did not possessthe primitive structure alleged by evolutionists.52 This was stated in an ar-ticle in Discover "Whence came the birds? This fossil suggests that it wasnot from dinosaur stock".53

Another fossil that refuted the evolutionist claims regardingArchæopteryx was Eoalulavis. The wing structure of Eoalulavis, which wassaid to be some 25 to 30 million years younger than Archæopteryx, was alsoobserved in today’s slow-flying birds. This proved that 120 million yearsago, there were birds indistinguishable from birds of today in many re-spects flying in the skies.54

These facts once more indicate for certain that neither Archæopteryxnor other ancient birds similar to it were transitional forms. The fossils donot indicate that different bird species evolved from each other. On thecontrary, the fossil record proves that today's birds and some archaic birdssuch as Archæopteryx actually lived together at the same time. Some ofthese bird species, such as Archæopteryx and Confuciusornis, have becomeextinct, and only some of the species that once existed have been able tosurvive down to the present day.

In brief, several features of Archæopteryx indicate that this creaturewas not a transitional form. The overall anatomy of Archæopteryx implystasis, not evolution. Paleontologist Robert Carroll has to admit that:

The geometry of the flight feathers of Archæopteryx is identical with that ofmodern flying birds, whereas nonflying birds have symmetrical feathers.

Prof. Alan Feduccia


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Claiming that di-nosaurs trans-formed into birds,

evolutionists supporttheir assertion by sayingthat some dinosaurs whoflapped their front legs tohunt flies "took wing andflew" as seen in the pic-ture. Having no scientificbasis whatsoever andbeing nothing but a fig-ment of the imagination,this theory also entails avery simple logical con-tradiction: the examplegiven by evolutionists toexplain the origin of fly-ing, that is, the fly, already has aperfect ability to fly. Whereas ahuman cannot open and close hiseyes 10 times a second, an averagefly flutters its wings 500 times a sec-ond. Moreover, it moves both itswings simultaneously. The slightestdissonance in the vibration of wingswould cause the fly lose its balancebut this never happens.

Evolutionists should first comeup with an explanation as to howthe fly acquired this perfect abilityto fly. Instead, they fabricate imagi-nary scenarios about how muchmore clumsy creatures like reptilescame to fly.

Even the perfect creation of thehousefly invalidates the claim ofevolution. English biologist RobinWootton wrote in an article titled"The Mechanical Design of FlyWings":

The better we understand thefunctioning of insect wings, themore subtle and beautiful theirdesigns appear. Structures aretraditionally designed to deform

as little as possible; mecha-nisms are designed to movecomponent parts in predictableways. Insect wings combineboth in one, using componentswith a wide range of elasticproperties, elegantly assembledto allow appropriate deforma-tions in response to appropriateforces and to make the best pos-sible use of the air. They havefew if any technological paral-lels-yet.1

On the other hand, there is not asingle fossil that can be evidencefor the imaginary evolution of flies.This is what the distinguishedFrench zoologist Pierre Grassémeant when he said "We are in thedark concerning the origin of in-sects." 2

1- Robin J. Wootton, "The Mechanical De-

sign of Insect Wings", Scientific American,

v. 263, November 1990, p.120

2- Pierre-P Grassé, Evolution of Living Or-

ganisms, New York, Academic Press, 1977,


What is the Or i gin of Flies?

An example from evolutionist scenarios: Dinosaursthat suddenly took wing while trying to catch flies!


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The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals

The way in which the feathers are arranged on the wing also falls within therange of modern birds… According to Van Tyne and Berger, the relative sizeand shape of the wing of Archæopteryx are similar to that of birds that movethrough restricted openings in vegetation, such as gallinaceous birds, doves,woodco*cks, woodpeckers, and most passerine birds… The flight feathershave been in stasis for at least 150 million years…55

On the other hand, the "temporal paradox" is one of the facts that dealthe fatal blow to the evolutionist allegations about Archæopteryx. In hisbook Icons of Evolution, Jonathan Wells remarks that Archæopteryx hasbeen turned into an "icon" of the theory of evolution, whereas evidenceclearly shows that this creature is not the primitive ancestor of birds. Ac-cording to Wells, one of the indications of this is that theropod di-nosaurs—the alleged ancestors of Archæopteryx—are actually youngerthan Archæopteryx:

Two-legged reptiles that ran along the ground, and had other features onemight expect in an ancestor of Archæopteryx, appear later. 56

The Imaginary Bird-Dinosaur LinkThe claim of evolutionists trying to present Archæopteryx as a transi-

tional form is that birds have evolved from dinosaurs. However, one of themost famous ornithologists in the world, Alan Feduccia from the Univer-sity of North Carolina, opposes the theory that birds are related to di-nosaurs, despite the fact that he is an evolutionist himself. Feduccia hasthis to say regarding the thesis of reptile-bird evolution:

Well, I've studied bird skulls for 25 years and I don't see any similaritieswhatsoever. I just don't see it... The theropod origins of birds, in my opinion,will be the greatest embarrassment of paleontology of the 20th century.57

Larry Martin, a specialist on earlier birds from the University ofKansas, also opposes the theory that birds are descended from dinosaurs.Discussing the contradiction that evolution falls into on the subject, hestates:

To tell you the truth, if I had to support the dinosaur origin of birds withthose characters, I'd be embarrassed every time I had to get up and talk aboutit.58

To sum up, the scenario of the "evolution of birds" erected solely onthe basis of Archæopteryx, is nothing more than a product of the prejudicesand wishful thinking of evolutionists.


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The Origin of MammalsAs we have stated before, the theory of evolution proposes that some

imaginary creatures that came out of the sea turned into reptiles, and thatbirds evolved from reptiles. According to the same sce-nario, reptiles are the ancestors not only of birds butalso of mammals. However, there are great differ-ences between these two classes. Mammals arewarm-blooded animals (this means they can gen-erate their own heat and maintain it at asteady level), they give live birth,they suckle their young, and theirbodies are covered in fur or hair.Reptiles, on the other hand, arecold-blooded (i.e., they cannotgenerate heat, and their body tem-perature changes according to theexternal temperature), they layeggs, they do not suckle theiryoung, and their bodies are cov-ered in scales.

One example of the structuralbarriers between reptiles andmammals is their jaw structure.Mammal jaws consist of only onemandibular bone containing theteeth. In reptiles, there are three lit-tle bones on both sides of themandible. Another basic differ-ence is that all mammals havethree bones in their middle ear(hammer, anvil, and stirrup). Rep-tiles have but a single bone in themiddle ear. Evolutionists claimthat the reptile jaw and middle eargradually evolved into the mam-mal jaw and ear. The question of

Evolutionists propose that all mammal species evolvedfrom a common ancestor.

However, there are great differ-ences between various mammalspecies such as bears, whales,mice, and bats. Each of these liv-ing beings pos-sesses specificsystems. For exam-ple, bats are createdwith a very sensitivesonar system thathelps them find theirway in darkness.These complexsystems, whichmodern technol-ogy can only imi-tate, could notpossibly haveemerged as a result of chance coincidence.The fossil record also demon-strates that bats came into being intheir present perfect state all of asudden and that they have not un-dergone any "evolutionaryprocess".

A bat fossilaged 50 million

years: no dif-ferent from its


(Science, vol.154)

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The Imaginary Evolution of Birds and Mammals

how an ear with a single bone evolved into one with three bones, and howthe sense of hearing kept on functioning in the meantime can never be ex-plained. Not surprisingly, not one single fossil linking reptiles and mam-mals has been found. This is why evolutionist science writer Roger Lewinwas forced to say, "The transition to the first mammal, which probablyhappened in just one or, at most, two lineages, is still an enigma".59

George Gaylord Simpson, one of the most popular evolutionary au-thorities and a founder of the neo-Darwinist theory, makes the followingcomment regarding this perplexing difficulty for evolutionists:

The most puzzling event in the history of life on earth is the change from theMesozoic, the Age of Reptiles, to the Age of Mammals. It is as if the curtainwere rung down suddenly on the stage where all the leading roles weretaken by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in great numbers and bewildering va-riety, and rose again immediately to reveal the same setting but an entirelynew cast, a cast in which the dinosaurs do not appear at all, other reptiles aresupernumeraries, and all the leading parts are played by mammals of sortsbarely hinted at in the preceding acts.60

Furthermore, when mammals suddenly made their appearance, theywere already very different from each other. Such dissimilar animals asbats, horses, mice, and whales are all mammals, and they all emergedduring the same geological period. Establishing an evolutionary relation-ship among them is impossible even by the broadest stretch of the imagi-nation. The evolutionist zoologist R. Eric Lombard makes this point in anarticle that appeared in the leading journal Evolution:

Those searching for specific information useful in constructing phyloge-nies of mammalian taxa will be disappointed.61

All of these demonstrate that all living beings appeared on earth sud-denly and fully formed, without any evolutionary process. This is concreteevidence of the fact that they were created. Evolutionists, however, try tointerpret the fact that living species came into existence in a particularorder as an indication of evolution. Yet the sequence by which livingthings emerged is the "order of creation", since it is not possible to speak ofan evolutionary process. With a superior and flawless creation, oceans andthen lands were filled with living things and finally man was created.

Contrary to the "ape man" story that is imposed on the masses withintense media propaganda, man also emerged on earth suddenly and fullyformed.


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Until recently, an imaginary se-quence supposedly showing theevolution of the horse was ad-

vanced as the principal fossil evidencefor the theory of evolution. Today, how-ever, many evolutionists themselvesfrankly admit that the scenario of horseevolution is bankrupt. In 1980, a four-daysymposium was held at the Field Mu-seum of Natural History in Chicago, with150 evolutionists in attendance, to dis-cuss the problems with gradualistic evo-lutionary theory. In addressing themeeting, evolutionist Boyce Rensbergernoted that the scenario of the evolutionof the horse has no foundation in thefossil record, and that no evolutionaryproccess has been observed that wouldaccount for the gradual evolution ofhorses:

The popularly told example of horseevolution, suggesting a gradual se-quence of changes from four-toedfox-sized creatures living nearly 50million years ago to today's muchlarger one-toed horse, has long beenknown to be wrong. Instead of grad-ual change, fossils of each intermedi-ate species appear fully distinct,persist unchanged, and then becomeextinct. Transitional forms are un-known.1

Dr. Niles Eldredge said the followingabout the “evolution of the horse” dia-grams:

There have been an awful lot of sto-ries, some more imaginative thanothers, about what the nature of thathistory [of life] really is. The most fa-mous example, still on exhibit down-stairs, is the exhibit on horseevolution prepared perhaps fiftyyears ago. That has been presentedas the literal truth in textbook aftertextbook. Now I think that is lamenta-

ble, particularly when the people whopropose those kinds of stories maythemselves be aware of the specula-tive nature of some of that stuff.2

Then what is the basis for the sce-nario of the evolution of the horse? Thisscenario was formulated by means ofthe deceitful charts devised by the se-quential arrangement of fossils of dis-tinct species that lived at vastly differentperiods in India, South Africa, NorthAmerica, and Europe solely in accor-dance with the rich power of evolution-ists' imaginations. More than 20 chartsof the evolution of the horse, which bythe way are totally different from eachother, have been proposed by variousresearchers. Thus, it is obvious that evo-lutionists have reached no commonagreement on these family trees. The

The Myth of Horse Ev o lu tion

There are breeds of horse of differentsizes on Earth. The "evolution of the

horse" sequence is nothing more thanfossils belonging to these differentbreeds and certain other mammalsbeing set out one behind the other.

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This horse series in a museum display is comprised of variousanimals that lived at different times, and in different geographi-cal locations. Here they have been arranged arbitrarily, oneafter the other, to suggest a linear sequence, according to a bi-ased perspective. This scenario of equine “evolution” has nosupport in the fossil record.

only common feature in thesearrangements is the belief that a dog-sized creature called "Eohippus",which lived in the Eocene Period 55million years ago, was the ancestor ofthe horse (Equus). Yet Eohippus, por-trayed as an equine ancestor that be-came extinct millions of years ago, isalmost identical to the mammalknown as “Hyrax” that still lives inAfrica, but has not the slightest con-nection with horses.3 The invalidityof the claim regarding the evolutionof the horse is becoming clearerevery day with the discovery of newfossils. Eohippus has been identifiedin strata containing some fossilizedbreeds of horse—Equus nevadensisand E. occidentalis—that are stillalive today—Equus nevadensis.4

This shows that the present dayhorse lived at the same time as itssupposed forebear, proving that thehorse never underwent the processknown as evolution.

The evolutionist science writerGordon R. Taylor explains this little-acknowledged truth in his book TheGreat Evolution Mystery:

But perhaps the most seriousweakness of Darwinism is the fail-ure of paleontologists to find con-vincing phylogenies or sequences

of organisms demonstratingmajor evolutionary change... Thehorse is often cited as the onlyfully worked-out example. But thefact is that the line from Eohippusto Equus is very erratic. It is al-leged to show a continual in-crease in size, but the truth is thatsome variants were smaller thanEohippus, not larger. Specimensfrom different sources can bebrought together in a convincing-looking sequence, but there is noevidence that they were actuallyranged in this order in time.5

All these facts are strong evi-dence that the charts of horse evolu-tion, which are presented as one ofthe most solid pieces of evidence forDarwinism, are nothing but fantasticand implausible tales.

1- Boyce Rensberger, Houston Chronicle, No-

vember 5, 1980, p.15

2- Harper's Magazine, February, 1985, p. 60

3- Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe:

Where Darwin Went Wrong, New York: Ticknor

and Fields, 1982, pp. 30-31

4- Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe, pp.


5- Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Great Evolution

Mystery, Abacus, Sphere Books, London,

1984, p. 230


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Biased and De cep tive

Fos sil In ter pre ta tions


Before going into the details of the myth of human evolution, weneed to mention the propaganda method that has convinced thegeneral public of the idea that half-man half-ape creatures once

lived in the past. This propaganda method makes use of "reconstructions"made in reference to fossils. Reconstruction can be explained as drawing apicture or constructing a model of a living thing based on a single bone-sometimes only a fragment-that has been unearthed. The "ape-men" wesee in newspapers, magazines, or films are all reconstructions.

The fossils that are claimed to be evidence for the human evolutionscenario are in fact products of fraud. For more than 150 years, not even asingle fossil to prove evolution has been found. As a matter of fact, the re-constructions (drawings or models) of the fossil remains made by the evo-lutionists are prepared speculatively precisely to validate the evolutionarythesis. David R. Pilbeam, an anthropologist from Harvard, stresses thisfact when he says: "At least in paleoanthropology, data are still so sparsethat theory heavily influences interpretations. Theories have, in the past,clearly reflected our current ideologies instead of the actual data".62 Sincepeople are highly affected by visual information, these reconstructionsbest serve the purpose of evolutionists, which is to convince people thatthese reconstructed creatures really existed in the past.

At this point, we have to highlight one particular point: Reconstruc-tions based on bone remains can only reveal the most general characteris-tics of the creature, since the really distinctive morphological features ofany animal are soft tissues which quickly vanish after death. Therefore,due to the speculative nature of the interpretation of the soft tissues, the re-constructed drawings or models become totally dependent on the imagi-nation of the person producing them. Earnest A. Hooten from HarvardUniversity explains the situation like this:

To attempt to restore the soft parts is an even more hazardous undertaking.The lips, the eyes, the ears, and the nasal tip leave no clues on the underly-ing bony parts. You can with equal facility model on a Neanderthaloid skull

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In pictures and reconstructions, evolutionists deliberately give shape to fea-tures that do not actually leave any fossil traces, such as the structure of thenose and lips, the shape of the hair, the form of the eyebrows, and other bod-ily hair so as to support evolution. They also prepare detailed pictures depict-ing these imaginary creatures walking with their families, hunting, or in otherinstances of their daily lives. However, these drawings are all figments of theimagination and have no counterpart in the fossil record.

Im ag i nary and De cep tive Draw ingsJ






e E





a, v

ol. 1

, p. 9



nal G



ic, March


Geheimnisse Der Urzeit, Tiereund Menschen, p. 200












1, p

. 94


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N.Parker's reconstruc-tion, N. Geographic,

September 1960

Maurice Wilson'sdrawing

Appeared in SundayTimes, April 5, 1964

the features of a chimpanzee or the lineaments of a philosopher. These al-leged restorations of ancient types of man have very little if any scientificvalue and are likely only to mislead the public… So put not your trust inreconstructions.63

As a matter of fact, evolutionists invent such "preposterous stories"that they even ascribe different faces to the same skull. For example, thethree different reconstructed drawings made for the fossil named Aus-tralopithecus robustus (Zinjanthropus), are a famous example of suchforgery.

The biased interpretation of fossils and outright fabrication of manyimaginary reconstructions are an indication of how frequently evolution-ists have recourse to tricks. Yet these seem innocent when compared to thedeliberate forgeries that have been perpetrated in the history of evolution.

Two drawings of Java Man,which are totally differentfrom each other, provide agood example of how fan-tastically fossils are inter-preted by evolutionists.

Left: Maurice Wilson’s draw-ing (From Ape to Adam: TheSearch for the Ancestry of

Man, Herbert Wendth)

Right: Steven Stanley's draw-ing (Human Origins)




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There is no concrete fossil evidence to support the "ape-man" image,which is unceasingly promulgated by the media and evolutionistacademic circles. With brushes in their hands, evolutionists pro-

duce imaginary creatures, nevertheless, the fact that these drawings corre-spond to no matching fossils constitutes a serious problem for them. Oneof the interesting methods they employ to overcome this problem is to"produce" the fossils they cannot find. Piltdown Man, which may be thebiggest scandal in the history of science, is a typical example of thismethod.

Piltdown Man: An Orangutan Jaw and a Human Skull!In 1912, a well-known doctor and amateur paleoanthropologist

named Charles Dawson came out with the assertion that he had found ajawbone and a cranial fragment in a pit in Piltdown, England. Even thoughthe jawbone was more ape-like, the teeth and the skull were like a man's.These specimens were labelled the "Piltdown man". Alleged to be 500,000years old, they were displayed as an absolute proof of human evolution inseveral museums. For more than 40 years, many scientific articles werewritten on "Piltdown man", many interpretations and drawings weremade, and the fossil was presented as important evidence for human evo-lution. No fewer than 500 doctoral theses were written on the subject.64

While visiting the British Museum in 1921, leading American paleoanthro-pologist Henry Fairfield Osborn said "We have to be reminded over andover again that Nature is full of paradoxes" and proclaimed Piltdown "adiscovery of transcendant importance to the prehistory of man".65

In 1949, Kenneth Oakley from the British Museum's Paleontology De-partment, attempted to use "fluorine testing", a new test used for deter-mining the date of fossils. A trial was made on the fossil of the Piltdownman. The result was astonishing. During the test, it was realised that the

Ev o lu tion For ger ies


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Pieces from ahuman skull

The fossils are unearthedby Charles Dawson andgiven to Sir Arthur SmithWoodward.

Pieces are recon-structed to formthe famous skull.

Based on the reconstructed skull,various drawings andskulptures are made,numerous articlesand commentariesare written. The origi-nal skull is demon-strated in the BritishMuseum.

After 40 years of itsdiscovery, the Pilt-down fossil is shownto be a hoax by a group

of researchers.





The Sto ry of a Hoax

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Ev o lu tion For ger ies 95

jawbone of Piltdown Man did not contain any fluorine. This indicated thatit had remained buried no more than a few years. The skull, which con-tained only a small amount of fluorine, showed that it was not older thana few thousand years old.

It was determined that the teeth in the jawbone belonging to anorangutan, had been worn down artificially and that the "primitive" toolsdiscovered with the fossils were simple imitations that had been sharp-ened with steel implements.66 In the detailed analysis completed byJoseph Weiner, this forgery was revealed to the public in 1953. The skullbelonged to a 500-year-old man, and the jaw bone belonged to a re-cently deceased ape! The teeth had been specially arranged in a particularway and added to the jaw, and the molar surfaces were filed in order toresemble those of a man. Then all these pieces were stained with potas-sium dichromate to give them an old appearance. These stains began todisappear when dipped in acid. Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clark, who was in theteam that uncovered the forgery, could not hide his astonishment at thissituation and said: "The evidences of artificial abrasion immediatelysprang to the eye. Indeed so obvious did they seem it may well be asked-how was it that they had escaped notice before?"67 In the wake of all this,"Piltdown man" was hurriedly removed from the British Museum whereit had been displayed for more than 40 years.

Nebraska Man: A Pig's ToothIn 1922, Henry Fairfield Osborn, the director of the American Mu-

seum of Natural History, declared that he had found a fossil molar toothbelonging to the Pliocene period in western Nebraska near Snake Brook.This tooth allegedly bore common characteristics of both man and ape.An extensive scientific debate began surrounding this fossil, which cameto be called "Nebraska man", in which some interpreted this tooth as be-longing to Pithecanthropus erectus, while others claimed it was closer tohuman beings. Nebraska man was also immediately given a "scientificname", Hesperopithecus haroldcooki.

Many authorities gave Osborn their support. Based on this singletooth, reconstructions of the Nebraska man's head and body weredrawn. Moreover, Nebraska man was even pictured along with his wifeand children, as a whole family in a natural setting.

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All of these scenarios were developed from just one tooth. Evolution-ist circles placed such faith in this "ghost man" that when a researchernamed William Bryan opposed these biased conclusions relying on a sin-gle tooth, he was harshly criticised.

In 1927, other parts of the skeleton were also found. According tothese newly discovered pieces, the tooth belonged neither to a man nor toan ape. It was realised that it belonged to an extinct species of wild Ameri-can pig called Prosthennops. William Gregory entitled the article publishedin Science in which he announced the truth, "Hesperopithecus: ApparentlyNot an ape Nor a man".68 Then all the drawings of Hesperopithecus harold-cooki and his "family" were hurriedly removed from evolutionary litera-ture.

Ota Benga: The African In The CageAfter Darwin advanced the claim with his book The Descent of Man

that man evolved from ape-like living beings, he started to seek fossils tosupport this contention. However, some evolutionists believed that "half-man half-ape" creatures were to be found not only in the fossil record, butalso alive in various parts of the world. In the early 20th century, thesepursuits for "living transitional links" led to unfortunate incidents, one ofthe cruellest of which is the story of a Pygmy by the name of Ota Benga.

Ota Benga was captured in 1904 by an evolutionist researcher in theCongo. In his own tongue, his name meant "friend". He had a wife and twochildren. Chained and caged like an animal, he was taken to the USAwhere evolutionist scientists displayed him to the public in the St LouisWorld Fair along with other ape species and introduced him as "the clos-

The picture on the left wasdrawn on the basis of a sin-gle tooth and it was pub-lished in the IllustratedLondon News magazine onJuly 24, 1922. However, theevolutionists were ex-tremely disappointed whenit was revealed that thistooth belonged neither to anape-like creature nor to aman, but rather to an extinctpig species.


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est transitional link to man".Two years later, they took him tothe Bronx Zoo in New York andthere they exhibited him underthe denomination of "ancient an-cestors of man" along with a fewchimpanzees, a gorilla namedDinah, and an orang-utan calledDohung. Dr William T. Horna-day, the zoo's evolutionist direc-tor gave long speeches on howproud he was to have this excep-tional "transitional form" in hiszoo and treated caged Ota Bengaas if he were an ordinary animal.Unable to bear the treatment hewas subjected to, Ota Bengaeventually committed suicide.69

Piltdown Man, Nebraska Man, Ota Benga... These scandals demon-strate that evolutionist scientists do not hesitate to employ any kind of un-scientific method to prove their theory. Bearing this point in mind, whenwe look at the other so-called evidence of the "human evolution" myth,we confront a similar situation. Here there are a fictional story and anarmy of volunteers ready to try everything to verify this story.

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I n previous chapters, we saw that there are no mechanisms in natureto lead the living beings to evolve and that living species came into ex-istence not as the result of an evolutionary process, but rather

emerged all of a sudden in their present perfect structure. That is, theywere created individually. Therefore, it is obvious that "human evolution",too, is a story that has never taken place.

What, then, do the evolutionists propose as the basis for this story?This basis is the existence of plenty of fossils on which the evolution-

ists are able to build up imaginary interpretations. Throughout history,more than 6,000 ape species have lived and most of them have become ex-tinct. Today, only 120 ape species live on the earth. These approximately6,000 ape species, most of which are extinct, constitute a rich resource forthe evolutionists.

The evolutionists wrote the scenario of human evolution by arrang-ing some of the skulls that suited their purpose in an order from the small-est to the biggest and scattering the skulls of some extinct human racesamong them. According to this scenario, men and today’s apes have com-mon ancestors. These creatures evolved in time and some of them becamethe apes of today while another group that followed another branch ofevolution became the men of today.

However, all the paleontological, anatomical and biological findingshave demonstrated that this claim of evolution is as fictitious and invalidas all the others. No sound or real evidence has been put forward to provethat there is a relationship between man and ape, except forgeries, distor-tions, and misleading drawings and comments.

The fossil record indicates to us that throughout history, men havebeen men and apes have been apes. Some of the fossils the evolutionistsclaim to be the ancestors of man, belong to human races that lived untilvery recently-about 10,000 years ago-and then disappeared. Moreover,

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many human communities currently living have the same physical appear-ance and characteristics as these extinct human races, which the evolution-ists claim to be the ancestors of men. All these are clear proof that man hasnever gone through an evolutionary process at any period in history.

The most important of all is that there are numerous anatomical differ-ences between apes and men and none of them are of the kind to come intoexistence through an evolutionary process. "Bipedality" is one of them. Aswe will describe later on in detail, bipedality is peculiar to man and it is oneof the most important traits that distinguishes man from other animals.

The Imaginary Family Tree of ManThe Darwinist claim holds that today’s man evolved from some kind

of ape-like creature. During this alleged evolutionary process, which issupposed to have started from 4 to 5 million years ago, it is claimed thatthere existed some "transitional forms" between today’s man and his an-cestors. According to this completely imaginary scenario, the followingfour basic "categories" are listed:

1. Australopithecines (any of the various forms belonging to thegenus Australopithecus)

2. hom*o habilis3. hom*o erectus4. hom*o sapiensEvolutionists call the genus to which the alleged ape-like ancestors of

man belonged "Australopithecus", which means "southern ape". Australop-ithecus, which is nothing but an old type of ape that has become extinct, isfound in various different forms. Some of them are larger and stronglybuilt (robust), while others are smaller and delicate (gracile).

Evolutionists classify the next stage of human evolution as the genushom*o, that is "man". According to the evolutionist claim, the living thingsin the hom*o series are more developed than Australopithecus, and not verymuch different from today’s man. The man of our day, that is, the specieshom*o sapiens, is said to have formed at the latest stage of the evolution ofthis genus hom*o.

Fossils like "Java Man", "Pekin Man", and "Lucy", which appear inthe media from time to time and are to be found in evolutionist publica-tions and textbooks, are included in one of the four groups listed above.

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Each of these groupings is also assumed to branch into species and sub-species, as the case may be.

Some suggested transitional forms of the past, such as Ramapithecus,had to be excluded from the imaginary human family tree after it was re-alised that they were ordinary apes.70

By outlining the links in the chain as "australopithecines > hom*o ha-bilis > hom*o erectus > hom*o sapiens", the evolutionists imply that each ofthese types is the ancestor of the next. However, recent findings by pale-oanthropologists have revealed that australopithecines, hom*o habilis andhom*o erectus existed in different parts of the world at the same time. More-over, some of those humans classified as hom*o erectus probably lived upuntil very recent times. In an article titled "Latest hom*o erectus of Java: Po-tential Contemporaneity with hom*o sapiens in Southeast Asia", it was re-ported in the journal Science that hom*o erectus fossils found in Java had"mean ages of 27 ± 2 to 53.3 ± 4 thousand years ago" and this "raise[s] thepossibility that H. erectus overlapped in time with anatomically modernhumans (H. sapiens) in Southeast Asia"71

The first Ramapithecus fossil found: amissing jaw composed of two parts. (onthe right). The evolutionists daringly pic-tured Ramapithecus, his family and theenvironment they lived in, by relying onlyon these jawbones.



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Furthermore, hom*o sapiens neandarthalensis and hom*o sapiens sapiens(today’s man) also clearly co-existed. This situation apparently indicatesthe invalidity of the claim that one is the ancestor of the other.

Intrinsically, all findings and scientific research have revealed that thefossil record does not suggest an evolutionary process as evolutionists pro-pose. The fossils, which evolutionists claim to be the ancestors of humans, infact belong either to different human races, or else to species of ape.

Then which fossils are human and which ones are apes? Is it ever pos-sible for any one of them to be considered a transitional form? In order tofind the answers, let us have a closer look at each category.

Australopithecus: An Ape SpeciesThe first category, the genus Australopithecus, means "southern ape",

as we have said. It is assumed that these creatures first appeared in Africaabout 4 million years ago, and lived until 1 million years ago. There are anumber of different species among the astralopithecines. Evolutionists as-sume that the oldest Australopithecus species is A. Afarensis. After thatcomes A. Africanus, and then A. Robustus, which has relatively biggerbones. As for A. Boisei, some researchers accept it as a different species,and others as a sub-species of A. Robustus.

All of the Australopithecus species are extinct apes that resemblethe apes of today. Their cranial capacities are the same or smaller than thechimpanzees of our day. There are projecting parts in their hands and feetwhich they used to climb trees, just like today's chimpanzees, and theirfeet are built for grasping to hold onto branches. They are short (maximum130 cm. (51 in.)) and just like today's chimpanzees, male Australopithecus islarger than the female. Many other characteristics-such as the details intheir skulls, the closeness of their eyes, their sharp molar teeth, theirmandibular structure, their long arms, and their short legs-constitute evi-dence that these creatures were no different from today's ape.

However, evolutionists claim that, although australopithecines havethe anatomy of apes, unlike apes, they walked upright like humans.

This claim that australopithecines walked upright is a view that hasbeen held by paleoanthropologists such as Richard Leakey and Donald C.Johanson for decades. Yet many scientists who have carried out a great dealof research on the skeletal structures of australopithecines have proved the

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invalidity of that argument. Extensive research done on various Australop-ithecus specimens by two world-renowned anatomists from England andthe USA, Lord Solly Zuckerman and Prof. Charles Oxnard, showed thatthese creatures did not walk upright in human manner. Having studied thebones of these fossils for a period of 15 years thanks to grants from theBritish government, Lord Zuckerman and his team of five specialistsreached the conclusion that australopithecines were only an ordinary apegenus and were definitely not bipedal, although Zuckerman is an evolu-tionist himself.72 Correspondingly, Charles E. Oxnard, who is another evo-lutionist famous for his research on the subject, also likened the skeletalstructure of australopithecines to that of today’s orang-utans.73

The fact that Australopithecus cannot be considered an ancestor of manis also accepted by evolutionist sources. The well-known French magazineScience et Vie made this its cover story of its May 1999 issue. The story dealtwith Lucy, the best-known fossil specimen of Australopithecus afarensis,under the title "Adieu Lucy," (Goodbye Lucy) and wrote of the need to re-move Australopithecus from the human family tree. The article, based onthe discovery of a new Australopithecus, code number St W573, stated:

A new theory states that the genus Australopithecus is not the root of thehuman race… The results arrived at by the only woman authorized to exam-ine St W573 are different from the normal theories regarding mankind's an-cestors: this destroys the hominid family tree. Large primates, considered theancestors of man, have been removed from the equation of this family tree…Australopithecus and hom*o (human) species do not appear on the samebranch. Man's direct ancestors are still waiting to be discovered. 74

hom*o Habilis: The Ape that was Presented as HumanThe great similarity between the skeletal and cranial structures of

australopithecines and chimpanzees, and the refutation of the claim thatthese creatures walked upright, have caused great difficulty for evolution-ist paleoanthropologists. The reason is that, according to the imaginaryevolution scheme, hom*o erectus comes after Australopithecus. As the genusname hom*o (meaning "man") implies, hom*o erectus is a human speciesand its skeleton is straight. Its cranial capacity is twice as large as that ofAustralopithecus. A direct transition from Australopithecus, which is a chim-panzee-like ape, to hom*o erectus, which has a skeleton no different fromtoday’s man's, is out of the question even according to evolutionist theory.


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The first fossil found inEthiopia, Hadar, which isto be supposed to belongto Australopithecus afer-ensis species: AL 288-1 or"Lucy". For a long time,evolutionists struggled toprove that Lucy couldwalk upright; but the latestresearch has definitely es-tablished that this animalwas an ordinary ape with abent stride.

The Australopithecus aferen-sis AL 333-105 fossil seenbelow belongs to a youngmember of this species. This iswhy the protrusion has not yetformed on his skull.

Aus tra lo pi the cus Af e ren sis: An Ex tinct Ape

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Above is seen theskull of Australop-ithecus aferensis AL444-2 fossil, andbelow is the skull of acontemporary ape.The obvious similar-ity verifies that A.aferensis is an ordi-nary ape specieswithout any "human-like" features.



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Therefore, "links"-that is, "transitional forms"-are needed. The concept ofhom*o habilis arose from this necessity.

The classification of hom*o habilis was put forward in the 1960s by theLeakeys, a family of "fossil hunters". According to the Leakeys, this newspecies, which they classified as hom*o habilis, had a relatively large cranialcapacity, the ability to walk upright and to use stone and wooden tools.Therefore, it could have been the ancestor of man.

New fossils of the same species unearthed in the late 1980s, were tocompletely change this view. Some researchers, such as Bernard Wood andC. Loring Brace, who relied on those newly-found fossils, stated that hom*ohabilis (which means "skillful man", that is, man capable of using tools)should be classified as Australopithecus habilis, or "skillful southern ape", be-cause hom*o habilis had a lot of characteristics in common with the australop-ithecine apes. It had long arms, short legs and an ape-like skeletal structurejust like Australopithecus. Its fingers and toes were suitable for climbing.Their jaw was very similar to that of today's apes. Their 600 cc average cra-nial capacity is also an indication of the fact that they were apes. In short,hom*o habilis, which was presented as a different species by some evolution-ists, was in reality an ape species just like all the other australopithecines.

Research carried out in the years since Wood and Brace's work hasdemonstrated that hom*o habilis was indeed no different from Australopithe-cus. The skull and skeletal fossil OH62 found by Tim White showed thatthis species had a small cranial capacity, as well as long arms and shortlegs which enabled them to climb trees just like apes of our day do.

The detailed analyses conducted by American anthropologist HollySmith in 1994 indicated that hom*o habilis was not hom*o, in other words,"human", at all, but rather unequivocally an "ape". Speaking of the analy-ses she made on the teeth of Australopithecus, hom*o habilis, hom*o erectusand hom*o neanderthalensis, Smith stated the following;

Restricting analysis of fossils to specimens satisfying these criteria, patternsof dental development of gracile australopithecines and hom*o Habilis re-main classified with African apes. Those of hom*o erectus and Neanderthalsare classified with humans.75

Within the same year, Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood and Frans Zonn-eveld, all specialists on anatomy, reached a similar conclusion through atotally different method. This method was based on the comparative

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"OH 7 hom*o habilis"seen on the down left

has been the fossilwhich best defined themandibular features of

the hom*o habilisspecies. This mandiblefossil has big incisory

teeth. Its molar teethare small. The shape ofthe mandible is square.

All these qualitiesmake this mandiblelook very similar to

that of today's apes.In other words, hom*o

habilis' mandible oncemore confirms that

this being is actuallyan ape.

For a long time, evo-lutionists argued thatthe creatures theycalled hom*o habiliscould walk upright.They thought thatthey had found a linkstretching from apeto man. Yet, the newhom*o habilis fossilsTim White unearthedin 1986 and namedas OH 62 disprovedthis assertion. Thesefossil fragmentsshowed that hom*ohabilis had longarms and short legsjust like contempo-rary apes. This fossilput an end to the as-sertion proposingthat hom*o habiliswas a bipedal beingable to walk upright.In truth, hom*o ha-bilis was nothing butanother ape species.

Ho mo Ha bi lis: An oth er Ex tinct Ape

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analysis of the semi-circular canals in the inner ear of humans and apeswhich provided for sustaining balance. Spoor, Wood and Zonneveld con-cluded that:

Among the fossil hominids the earliest species to demonstrate the modernhuman morphology is hom*o erectus. In contrast, the semi-circular canal di-mensions in crania from southern Africa attributed to Australopithecus andParanthropus resemble those of the extant great apes. 76

Spoor, Wood and Zonneveld also studied a hom*o habilis specimen,namely Stw 53, and found out that "Stw 53 relied less on bipedal behaviorthan the australopithecines." This meant that the H. habilis specimen waseven more ape-like than the Australopithecus species. Thus they concludedthat "Stw 53 represents an unlikely intermediate between the morpholo-gies seen in the australopithecines and H. erectus."

This finding yielded two important results:1. Fossils referred to as hom*o habilis did not actually belong to the

genus hom*o, i.e. humans, but to that of Australopithecus, i.e. apes. 2. Both hom*o habilis and Australopithecus were creatures that walked

stooped forward-that is to say, they had the skeleton of an ape. They haveno relation whatsoever to man.

hom*o Rudolfensis: The Face Wrongly JoinedThe term hom*o rudolfensis is the name given to a few fossil fragments

unearthed in 1972. The species supposedly represented by this fossil wasdesignated hom*o rudolfensis because these fossil fragments were found inthe vicinity of Lake Rudolf in Kenya. Most of the paleoanthropologists ac-cept that these fossils do not belong to a distinct species, but that the crea-ture called hom*o rudolfensis is in fact indistinguishable from hom*o habilis.

Richard Leakey, who unearthed the fossils, presented the skull desig-nated "KNM-ER 1470", which he said was 2.8 million years old, as thegreatest discovery in the history of anthropology. According to Leakey,this creature, which had a small cranial capacity like that of Australopithe-cus together with a face similar to that of present-day humans, was themissing link between Australopithecus and humans. Yet, after a short while,it was realised that the human-like face of the KNM-ER 1470 skull, whichfrequently appeared on the covers of scientific journals and popular sci-ence magazines was the result of the incorrect assembly of the skull frag-

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ments, which may have been deliberate. Professor Tim Bromage, who con-ducts studies on human facial anatomy, brought this to light by the help ofcomputer simulations in 1992:

When it [KNM-ER 1470] was first reconstructed, the face was fitted to thecranium in an almost vertical position, much like the flat faces of modern hu-mans. But recent studies of anatomical relationships show that in life the facemust have jutted out considerably, creating an ape-like aspect, rather like thefaces of Australopithecus.77

The evolutionist paleoanthropologist J. E. Cronin states the followingon the matter:

... its relatively robustly constructed face, flattish naso-alveolar clivus, (recall-ing australopithecine dished faces), low maximum cranial width (on the tem-porals), strong canine juga and large molars (as indicated by remainingroots) are all relatively primitive traits which ally the specimen with mem-bers of the taxon A. africanus.78

A comparative analysis ofthe semi-circular canals inthe inner ear in both humansand apes shows that the fos-sils long portrayed as theforerunners of human be-ings were all in fact ordinaryapes. The species Australop-ithecus and hom*o habilishad the inner ear canals ofan ape, while hom*o erectushad human ones.

The Result of the Analysis of the Inner Ear:THERE WAS NO TRANSITION FROM APE TO MAN

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C. Loring Brace from Michigan University came to the same conclu-sion. As a result of the analyses he conducted on the jaw and tooth struc-ture of skull 1470, he reported that "from the size of the palate and theexpansion of the area allotted to molar roots, it would appear that ER 1470retained a fully Australopithecus-sized face and dentition".79

Professor Alan Walker, a paleoanthropologist from Johns HopkinsUniversity who has done as much research on KNM-ER 1470 as Leakey,maintains that this creature should not be classified as a member of hom*o-i.e., as a human species-but rather should be placed in the Australopithecusgenus.80

In summary, classifications like hom*o habilis or hom*o rudolfensiswhich are presented as transitional links between the australopithecinesand hom*o erectus are entirely imaginary. It has been confirmed by manyresearchers today that these creatures are members of the Australopithe-cus series. All of their anatomical features reveal that they are species ofape.

This fact has been further established by two evolutionist anthropolo-gists, Bernard Wood and Mark Collard, whose research was published in1999 in Science magazine. Wood and Collard explained that the hom*o ha-bilis and hom*o rudolfensis (Skull 1470) taxa are imaginary, and that the fos-sils assigned to these categories should be attributed to the genusAustralopithecus:

More recently, fossil species have been assigned to hom*o on the basis of ab-solute brain size, inferences about language ability and hand function, andretrodictions about their ability to fashion stone tools. With only a few excep-tions , the definition and use of the genus within human evolution, and thedemarcation of hom*o, have been treated as if they are unproblematic. But ...recent data, fresh interpretations of the existing evidence, and the limitationsof the paleoanthropological record invalidate existing criteria for attributingtaxa to hom*o. practice fossil hominin species are assigned to hom*o on the basis of oneor more out of four criteria. ... It is now evident, however, that none of thesecriteria is satisfactory. The Cerebral Rubicon is problematic because absolutecranial capacity is of questionable biological significance. Likewise, there iscompelling evidence that language function cannot be reliably inferred fromthe gross appearance of the brain, and that the language-related parts of thebrain are not as well localized as earlier studies had implied...

...In other words, with the hypodigms of H. habilis and H. rudolfensis as-signed to it, the genus hom*o is not a good genus. Thus, H. habilis and H.

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KNM-WT 15000 or Turkana Child skeleton on the right, is prob-ably the oldest and the most complete human fossil everfound. Research made on this fossil which is said to be 1.6 mil-lion year old shows that this belongs to a 12 year old child whowould become around 1.80 m. tall if he reached adolescence.This fossil which very much resembled to the Neanderthalrace, is one of the most remarkable evidence invalidating thestory of human's evolution.The evolutionist Donald Johnson describes this fossil as fol-lows: "He was tall and skinny. His body shape and the propor-tion of his limbs were the same as the current EquatorAfricans. The sizes of his limbs totally matched with that of thecurrent white North American adults." (Donald C. Johanson &M. A. Edey, Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind, New York:Simon & Schuster, 1981)

hom*o erectus means "up-right man". All the fossils in-cluded in this species belongto particular human races.Since most of the hom*oerectus fossils do not have acommon characteristic, it isquite hard to define thesem*n according to theirskulls. This is the reasonwhy different evolutionist re-searchers have made vari-ous classifications anddesignations. Above left isseen a skull which was

found in Koobi Fora, Africain 1975 which may generallydefine hom*o erectus. Aboveright is a skull, hom*o er-gaster KNM-ER 3733, whichhas the obscurities in ques-tion. The cranial capacities of allthese diverse hom*o erectusfossils surge between 900-1100 cc. These figures arewithin the limits of the con-temporary human cranial capacity.

Ho mo erec tus: A Real Hu man Race

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rudolfensis (or hom*o habilis sensu lato for those who do not subscribe to thetaxonomic subdivision of "early hom*o") should be removed from hom*o. Theobvious taxonomic alternative, which is to transfer one or both of the taxa toone of the existing early hominin genera, is not without problems, but werecommend that, for the time being, both H. Habilis and H. Rudolfensisshould be transferred to the genus Australopithecus.81

The conclusion of Wood and Collard corroborates the conclusion wehave maintained here:"Primitive human ancestors" do not exist in history.Creatures that are alleged to be so are actually apes that ought to be as-signed to the genus Australopithecus. The fossil record shows that there isno evolutionary link between these extinct apes and hom*o, i.e., humanspecies that suddenly appears in the fossil record.

hom*o Erectus and Thereafter: Human Beings According to the fanciful scheme suggested by evolutionists, the in-

ternal evolution of the hom*o genus is as follows: First hom*o erectus, thenso-called "archaic" hom*o sapiens and Neanderthal man (hom*o sapiens nean-derthalensis), and finally, Cro-Magnon man (hom*o sapiens sapiens). How-ever all these classifications are really only variations and unique races inthe human family. The difference between them is no greater than the dif-ference between an Inuit and an African or a pygmy and a European.

Let us first examine hom*o erectus, which is referred to as the most prim-itive human species. As the name implies, "hom*o erectus" means "man whowalks upright". Evolutionists have had to separate these fossils from earlierones by adding the qualification of "erectness", because all the available hom*oerectus fossils are straight to an extent not observed in any of the australop-ithecines or so-called hom*o habilis specimens. There is no difference be-tween the postcranial skeleton of today’s man and that of hom*o erectus.

The primary reason for evolutionists' defining hom*o erectus as "prim-itive", is the cranial capacity of its skull (900-1,100 cc), which is smallerthan the average man of our day, and its thick eyebrow projections. How-ever, there are many people living today in the world who have the samecranial capacity as hom*o erectus (pygmies, for instance) and other raceshave protruding eyebrows (Native Australians, for instance).

It is a commonly agreed-upon fact that differences in cranial capacitydo not necessarily denote differences in intelligence or abilities. Intelli-gence depends on the internal organisation of the brain, rather than on itsvolume.82

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The fossils that have made hom*o erectus known to the entire world arethose of Peking man and Java man in Asia. However, in time it was realisedthat these two fossils are not reliable. Peking Man consists of some elementsmade of plaster whose originals have been lost, and Java Man is "composed"of a skull fragment plus a pelvic bone that was found metres away from itwith no indication that these belonged to the same creature. This is why thehom*o erectus fossils found in Africa have gained such increasing importance.(It should also be noted that some of the fossils said to be hom*o erectus wereincluded under a second species named "hom*o ergaster" by some evolu-tionists. There is disagreement among the experts on this issue. We will treatall these fossils under the classification of hom*o erectus)

The most famous of the hom*o erectus specimens found in Africa is thefossil of "Narikotome hom*o erectus" or the "Turkana Boy" which was foundnear Lake Turkana in Kenya. It is confirmed that the fossil was that of a 12-year-old boy, who would have been 1.83 meters tall in adolescence. Theupright skeletal structure of the fossil is no different from that of contem-porary man. The American paleoanthropologist Alan Walker said that hedoubted that "the average pathologist could tell the difference between thefossil skeleton and that of a modern human."83 Concerning the skull,Walker wrote that he laughed when he saw it because "it looked so much

"Early humans were much smarter than we suspected..."News published in New Scientist on March 14th 1998 tells us that the humans calledhom*o Erectus by evolutionists were practicing seamanship 700 thousand years ago.These humans, who had enough knowledge and technology to build a vessel andpossess a culture that made use of sea transport, can hardly be called "primitive".


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like a Neanderthal."84 As we will see in the next chapter, Neanderthals area modern human race. Therefore, hom*o erectus is also a modern humanrace.

Even the evolutionist Richard Leakey states that the differences be-tween hom*o erectus and modern man are no more than racial variance:

One would also see differences in the shape of the skull, in the degree of pro-trusion of the face, the robustness of the brows and so on. These differencesare probably no more pronounced than we see today between the separategeographical races of modern humans. Such biological variation ariseswhen populations are geographically separated from each other for signifi-cant lengths of time.85

Professor William Laughlin from the University of Connecticut madeextensive anatomical examinations of Inuits and the people living on theAleut islands, and noticed that these people were extraordinarily similarto hom*o erectus. The conclusion Laughlin arrived at was that all these dis-tinct races were in fact different races of hom*o sapiens (today’s man).

When we consider the vast differences that exist between remote groupssuch as Eskimos and Bushmen, who are known to belong to the singlespecies of hom*o sapiens, it seems justifiable to conclude that Sinanthropus [anerectus specimen] belongs within this same diverse species.86

It is now a more pronounced fact in the scientific community thathom*o erectus is a superfluous taxon, and that fossils assigned to the hom*oerectus class are actually not so different fromhom*o sapiens as to be considered a differentspecies. In American Scientist, the discussions overthis issue and the result of a conference held onthe subject in 2000 were summarised in this way:

Most of the participants at the Senckenberg con-ference got drawn into a flaming debate over thetaxonomic status of hom*o erectus started by Mil-ford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan, AlanThorne of the University of Canberra and theircolleagues. They argued forcefully that hom*o erec-tus had no validity as a species and should beeliminated altogether. All members of the genushom*o, from about 2 million years ago to the pre-sent, were one highly variable, widely spreadspecies, hom*o sapiens, with no natural breaks orsubdivisions. The subject of the conference, hom*oerectus didn't exist.87

FALSE MASKS: Althoughno different from today’sman, Neanderthals arestill depicted as ape-likeby evolutionists.


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The conclusion reached by the scientists defending the abovemen-tioned thesis can be summarised as "hom*o erectus is not a different speciesfrom hom*o sapiens, but rather a race within hom*o sapiens".

On the other hand, there is a huge gap between hom*o erectus, ahuman race, and the apes that preceded hom*o erectus in the "human evolu-tion" scenario, (Australopithecus, hom*o Habilis, and hom*o rudolfensis). Thismeans that the first men appeared in the fossil record suddenly and with-out any prior evolutionary history. This is a most clear indication of theirbeing created.

Yet, admitting this fact is totally against the dogmatic philosophy andideology of evolutionists. As a result, they try to portray hom*o erectus, atruly human race, as a half-ape creature. In their hom*o erectus reconstruc-tions, they tenaciously draw simian features. On the other hand, with sim-ilar drawing methods, they humanise apes like Australopithecus or hom*oHabilis. With this method, they seek to "approximate" apes and human be-ings and close the gap between these two distinct living classes.

NeanderthalsNeanderthals were human beings who suddenly appeared 100,000

years ago in Europe, and who disappeared, or were assimilated by mixingwith other races, quietly but quickly 35,000 years ago. Their only differ-ence from man of our day is that their skeletons are more robust and theircranial capacity slightly bigger.

Neanderthals were a human race, a fact which is admitted by almosteverybody today. Evolutionists have tried very hard to present them as a"primitive species", yet all the findings indicate that they were no differentfrom a "robust" man walking on the street today. A prominent authorityon the subject, Erik Trinkaus, a paleoanthropologist from New MexicoUniversity writes:

Detailed comparisons of Neanderthal skeletal remains with those of modernhumans have shown that there is nothing in Neanderthal anatomy that con-clusively indicates locomotor, manipulative, intellectual, or linguistic abili-ties inferior to those of modern humans.88

Many contemporary researchers define Neanderthal man as a sub-species of present-day man and call him "hom*o sapiens neandertalensis". Thefindings testify that Neanderthals buried their dead, fashioned musical in-

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Ne an der thals: A Ro bust Peo ple

Above is seen hom*o sapiens Nean-derthalensis, Amud 1 skull found in Is-rael. Neanderthal man is generallyknown to be robust yet short. However itis estimated that the owner of this fossilhad been 1.80 m. high. His cranial ca-pacity is the largest ever seen: 1740cc.Because of all these, this fossil isamong the important pieces of evidencedefinitely destroying the claims that Ne-anderthals were a primitive species.

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struments, and had cultural affinities with the hom*o sapiens sapiens livingduring the same period. To put it precisely, Neanderthals are a "robust"human race that simply disappeared in time.

hom*o Sapiens Archaic, hom*o Heilderbergensisand Cro-Magnon Man

Archaic hom*o sapiens is the last step before contemporary man in theimaginary evolutionary scheme. In fact, evolutionists do not have much tosay about these fossils, as there are only very minor differences betweenthem and today’s human beings. Some researchers even state that repre-sentatives of this race are still living today, and point to native Australiansas an example. Like hom*o sapiens (archaic), native Australians also havethick protruding eyebrows, an inward-inclined mandibular structure, anda slightly smaller cranial capacity.

The group characterised as hom*o heilderbergensis in evolutionist litera-ture is in fact the same as archaic hom*o sapiens. The reason why two differ-ent terms are used to define the same human racial type is thedisagreements among evolutionists. All the fossils included under thehom*o heidelbergensis classification suggest that people who were anatomi-cally very similar to today’s Europeans lived 500,000 and even 740,000years ago, first in England and then in Spain.

It is estimated that Cro-Magnon man lived 30,000 years ago. He has adome-shaped cranium and a broad forehead. His cranium of 1,600 cc isabove the average for contemporary man. His skull has thick eyebrow pro-jections and a bony protrusion at the back that is characteristic of both Ne-anderthal man and hom*o erectus.

Although the Cro-Magnon is considered to be a European race, thestructure and volume of Cro-Magnon's cranium look very much like thoseof some races living in Africa and the tropics today. Relying on this similar-ity, it is estimated that Cro-Magnon was an archaic African race. Some otherpaleoanthropological finds have shown that the Cro-Magnon and the Nean-derthal races intermixed and laid the foundations for the races of our day.

As a result, none of these human beings were "primitive species".They were different human beings who lived in earlier times and either as-similated and mixed with other races, or became extinct and disappearedfrom history.

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Species Living in the Same Age as Their AncestorsWhat we have investigated so far forms a clear picture: The scenario

of "human evolution" is a complete fiction. In order for such a family treeto represent the truth, a gradual evolution from ape to man must havetaken place and a fossil record of this process should be able to be found.In fact, however, there is a huge gap between apes and humans. Skeletalstructures, cranial capacities, and such criteria as walking upright or bentsharply forward distinguish humans from apes. (We already mentionedthat on the basis of recent research done in 1994 on the inner ear, Australo-pithecus and hom*o habilis were reclassified as apes, while hom*o erectus wasreclassified as a fully modern human.)

Another significant finding proving that there can be no family-treerelationship among these different species is that species that are pre-sented as ancestors of others in fact lived concurrently. If, as evolutionistsclaim, Australopithecus changed into hom*o habilis, which, in turn, turnedinto hom*o erectus, the periods they lived in should necessarily have fol-lowed each other. However, there is no such chronological order to be seenin the fossil record.

According to evolutionist estimates, Australopithecus lived from 4 mil-lion up until 1 million years ago. The creatures classified as hom*o habilis,on the other hand, are thought to have lived until 1.7 to 1.9 million yearsago. hom*o rudolfensis, which is said to have been more "advanced" thanhom*o habilis, is known to be as old as from 2.5 to 2.8 million years! That isto say, hom*o rudolfensis is nearly 1 million years older than hom*o habilis, ofwhich it is alleged to have been the "ancestor". On the other hand, the ageof hom*o erectus goes as far back as 1.6-1.8 million years ago, which meansthat hom*o erectus appeared on the earth in the same time frame as its so-called ancestor, hom*o habilis.

Alan Walker confirms this fact by stating that "there is evidence fromEast Africa for late-surviving small Australopithecus individuals thatwere contemporaneous first with H. Habilis, then with H. erec-tus."89Louis Leakey has found fossils of Australopithecus, hom*o habilis andhom*o erectus almost next to each other in the Olduvai Gorge region of Tan-zania, in the Bed II layer.90

There is definitely no such family tree. Stephen Jay Gould, who was apaleontologist from Harvard University, explained this deadlock faced by

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evolution, although he was an evolutionist himself:What has become of our ladder if there are three coexisting lineages of ho-minids (A. africanus, the robust australopithecines, and H. habilis), noneclearly derived from another? Moreover, none of the three display any evo-lutionary trends during their tenure on earth.91

When we move on from hom*o erectus to hom*o sapiens, we again see thatthere is no family tree to talk about. There is evidence showing that hom*oerectus and archaic hom*o sapiens continued living up to 27,000 years andeven as recently as 10,000 years before our time. In the Kow Swamp in Aus-tralia, some 13,000-year-old hom*o erectus skulls have been found. On the is-land of Java, hom*o erectus remains were found that are 27,000 years old.92

The Secret History of hom*o SapiensThe most interesting and significant fact that nullifies the very basis of

the imaginary family tree of evolutionary theory is the unexpectedly an-cient history of man. Paleoanthropological findings reveal that hom*o sapienspeople who looked exactly like us were living as long as 1 million years ago.

It was Louis Leakey, the famous evolutionist paleoanthropologist,who discovered the first findings on this subject. In 1932, in the Kanjera re-gion around Lake Victoria in Kenya, Leakey found several fossils that be-longed to the Middle Pleistocene and that were no different from today’s

An interesting fossilshowing that the Ne-anderthals hadknowledge of cloth-ing: A needle 26,000years old. (D. Johan-son, B. Edgar FromLucy to Language,p. 99)

26.000 Year Old Needle

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man. However, the Middle Pleistocene was a mil-lion years ago.94 Since these discoveries turned theevolutionary family tree upside down, they weredismissed by some evolutionist paleoanthropolo-gists. Yet Leakey always contended that his esti-mates were correct.

Just when this controversy was about to beforgotten, a fossil unearthed in Spain in 1995 re-vealed in a very remarkable way that the history ofhom*o sapiens was much older than had been as-sumed. The fossil in question was uncovered in acave called Gran Dolina in the Atapuerca region ofSpain by three Spanish paleoanthropologists fromthe University of Madrid. The fossil revealed theface of an 11-year-old boy who looked entirely likeman of our day. Yet, it had been 800,000 years sincethe child died. Discover magazine covered the storyin great detail in its December 1997 issue.

This fossil even shook the convictions of Juan Luis Arsuaga Ferreras,who lead the Gran Dolina excavation. Ferreras said:

We expected something big, something large, something inflated-you know,something primitive. Our expectation of an 800,000-year-old boy was some-thing like Turkana Boy. And what we found was a totally modern face.... Tome this is most spectacular-these are the kinds of things that shake you. Find-ing something totally unexpected like that. Not finding fossils; finding fossilsis unexpected too, and it's okay. But the most spectacular thing is findingsomething you thought belonged to the present, in the past. It's like findingsomething like-like a tape recorder in Gran Dolina. That would be very sur-prising. We don't expect cassettes and tape recorders in the Lower Pleis-tocene. Finding a modern face 800,000 years ago-it's the same thing. Wewere very surprised when we saw it.94

The fossil highlighted the fact that the history of hom*o sapiens had to beextended back to 800,000 years ago. After recovering from the initial shock,the evolutionists who discovered the fossil decided that it belonged to a dif-ferent species, because according to the evolutionary family tree, hom*o sapi-ens did not live 800,000 years ago. Therefore, they made up an imaginaryspecies called "hom*o antecessor" and included the Atapuerca skull underthis classification.

One of the most popularperiodicals of the evolu-

tionist literature, Dis-cover, put the 800thousand-year-old

human face on its coverwith the evolutionists'

question "Is this theface of our past?".

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A Hut 1.7 Million Years Old

There have been many findings demon-strating that hom*o sapiens dates back even ear-lier than 800,000 years. One of them is adiscovery by Louis Leakey in the early 1970s inOlduvai Gorge. Here, in the Bed II layer, Leakeydiscovered that Australopithecus, hom*o Habilisand hom*o erectus species had co-existed at thesame time. What is even more interesting was astructure Leakey found in the same layer (BedII). Here, he found the remains of a stone hut.The unusual aspect of the event was that thisconstruction, which is still used in some parts of Africa, could only havebeen built by hom*o sapiens! So, according to Leakey's findings, Australop-ithecus, hom*o habilis, hom*o erectus and today’s man must have co-existedapproximately 1.7 million years ago.95 This discovery must surely invali-date the evolutionary theory that claims that men evolved from ape-likespecies such as Australopithecus.

Footprints of Today’s Man, 3.6 Million Years Old!

Indeed, some other discoveries trace the origins of present-day manback to 1.7 million years ago. One of these important finds is the footprintsfound in Laetoli, Tanzania, by Mary Leakey in 1977. These footprints werefound in a layer that was calculated to be 3.6 million years old, and moreimportantly, they were no different from the footprints that a contempo-rary man would leave.

The footprints found by Mary Leakey were later examined by a num-ber of famous paleoanthropologists, such as Donald Johanson and TimWhite. The results were the same. White wrote:

Make no mistake about it, ...They are like modern human footprints. If onewere left in the sand of a California beach today, and a four-year old wereasked what it was, he would instantly say that somebody had walked there.He wouldn't be able to tell it from a hundred other prints on the beach, norwould you.96

After examining the footprints, Louis Robbins from the University ofNorth California made the following comments:

Findings of a 1.7 million-year-old hut shocked the

scientific community. Itlooked like the huts usedby some Africans today.

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The Laetoli footprints belongedto today’s humans, howeverthey were millions of years old.

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The arch is raised-the smaller individual had a higher arch than I do-and thebig toe is large and aligned with the second toe… The toes grip the groundlike human toes. You do not see this in other animal forms.97

Examinations of the morphological form of the footprints showedtime and again that they had to be accepted as the prints of a human, andmoreover, a present-day human (hom*o sapiens). Russell Tuttle, who alsoexamined the footprints wrote:

A small barefoot hom*o sapiens could have made them... In all discerniblemorphological features, the feet of the individuals that made the trails are in-distinguishable from those of modern humans.98

Impartial examinations of the footprints revealed their real owners. Inreality, these footprints consisted of 20 fossilised footprints of a 10-year-old present-day human and 27 footprints of an even younger one. Theywere certainly normal people like us.

This situation put the Laetoli footprints at the centre of discussionsfor years. Evolutionist paleoanthropologists desperately tried to come upwith an explanation, as it was hard for them to accept the fact that a con-temporary man had been walking on the earth 3.6 million years ago. Dur-ing the 1990s, the following "explanation" started to take shape: Theevolutionists decided that these footprints must have been left by an Aus-tralopithecus, because according to their theory, it was impossible for ahom*o species to have existed 3.6 years ago. However, Russell H. Tuttlewrote the following in an article in 1990:

In sum, the 3.5-million-year-old footprint traits at Laetoli site G resemblethose of habitually unshod modern humans. None of their features suggestthat the Laetoli hominids were less capable bipeds than we are. If the G foot-prints were not known to be so old, we would readily conclude that therehad been made by a member of our genus, hom*o... In any case, we shouldshelve the loose assumption that the Laetoli footprints were made by Lucy'skind, Australopithecus afarensis.99

To put it briefly, these footprints that were supposed to be 3.6 millionyears old could not have belonged to Australopithecus. The only reasonwhy the footprints were thought to have been left by members of Australo-pithecus was the 3.6-million-year-old volcanic layer in which the footprintswere found. The prints were ascribed to Australopithecus purely on the as-sumption that humans could not have lived so long ago.

These interpretations of the Laetoli footprints demonstrate one im-

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portant fact. Evolutionists support their theory not based on scientific find-ings, but in spite of them. Here we have a theory that is blindly defendedno matter what, with all new findings that cast the theory into doubt beingeither ignored or distorted to support the theory.

Briefly, the theory of evolution is not science, but a dogma kept alivedespite science.

The Bipedalism Impasse of Evolution Apart from the fossil record that we have dealt with so far, unbridge-

able anatomical gaps between men and apes also invalidate the fiction ofhuman evolution. One of these has to do with the manner of walking.

Human beings walk upright on two feet. This is a very special form oflocomotion not seen in any other mammalian species. Some other animalsdo have a limited ability to move when they stand on their two hind feet.Animals like bears and monkeys can move in this way only rarely, such aswhen they want to reach a source of food, and even then only for a shorttime. Normally, their skeletons lean forward and they walk on all fours.

Well, then, has bipedalism evolved from the quadrupedal gait ofapes, as evolutionists claim?

Of course not. Research has shown that the evolution of bipedalismnever occurred, nor is it possible for it to have done so. First of all, bipedal-ism is not an evolutionary advantage. The way in which monkeys move ismuch easier, faster, and more efficient than man's bipedal stride. Man canneither move by jumping from tree to tree without descending to the

Another example showing the invalid-ity of the imaginary family tree de-vised by evolutionists: a human(hom*o sapiens) mandible aged 2.3million years. This mandible codedA.L. 666-1 was unearthed in Hadar,Ethiopia.

Evolutionist publications seek togloss it over by referring to it as "avery startling discovery"... (D. Johan-son, Blake Edgar, From Lucy to Lan-guage, p.169)

A Human Mandible Aged 2.3 Million Years

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ground, like a chimpanzee, nor run at a speed of 125 km per hour, like acheetah. On the contrary, since man walks on two feet, he moves muchmore slowly on the ground. For the same reason, he is one of the most un-protected of all species in nature in terms of movement and defence. Ac-cording to the logic of the theory of evolution, monkeys should not haveevolved to adopt a bipedal stride; humans should instead have evolved tobecome quadrupedal.

Another impasse of the evolutionary claim is that bipedalism doesnot serve the "gradual development" model of Darwinism. This model,which constitutes the basis of evolution, requires that there should be a"compound" stride between bipedalism and quadrupedalism. However,with the computerised research he conducted in 1996, the English paleoan-thropologist Robin Crompton, showed that such a "compound" stride wasnot possible. Crompton reached the following conclusion: A living beingcan either walk upright, or on all fours.100 A type of stride between the two

Recent researches reveal that it is impossible for the bent ape skeleton fit forquadrupedal stride to evolve into upright human skeleton fit for bipedal stride.

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is impossible because it would involve excessive energy consumption.This is why a half-bipedal being cannot exist.

The immense gap between man and ape is not limited solely tobipedalism. Many other issues still remain unexplained, such as brain ca-pacity, the ability to talk, and so on. Elaine Morgan, an evolutionist pale-oanthropologist, makes the following confession in relation to this matter:

Four of the most outstanding mysteries about humans are: 1) why do theywalk on two legs? 2) why have they lost their fur? 3) why have they devel-oped such large brains? 4) why did they learn to speak?The orthodox answers to these questions are: 1) 'We do not yet know'; 2) 'Wedo not yet know'; 3) 'We do not yet know'; 4) 'We do not yet know'. The list ofquestions could be considerably lengthened without affecting the monotonyof the answers.101

Evolution: An Unscientific Faith

Lord Solly Zuckerman is one of the most famous and respected scien-tists in the United Kingdom. For years, he studied the fossil record and con-ducted many detailed investigations. He was elevated to the peerage for hiscontributions to science. Zuckerman is an evolutionist. Therefore, his com-ments on evolution can not be regarded as ignorant or prejudiced. Afteryears of research on the fossils included in the human evolution scenariohowever, he reached the conclusion that there is no truth to the family tree inthat is put forward.

Zuckerman also advanced an interesting concept of the "spectrum ofthe sciences", ranging from those he considered scientific to those he con-sidered unscientific. According to Zuckerman's spectrum, the most "scien-tific"-that is, depending on concrete data-fields are chemistry and physics.After them come the biological sciences and then the social sciences. At thefar end of the spectrum, which is the part considered to be most "unscien-tific", are "extra-sensory perception"-concepts such as telepathy and the"sixth sense"-and finally "human evolution". Zuckerman explains his rea-soning as follows:

We then move right off the register of objective truth into those fields of pre-sumed biological science, like extrasensory perception or the interpretationof man's fossil history, where to the faithful anything is possible - andwhere the ardent believer is sometimes able to believe several contradictorythings at the same time.102

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Robert Locke, the editor of Discovering Archeology, an important pub-lication on the origins of man, writes in that journal, "The search forhuman ancestors gives more heat than light", quoting the confession of thefamous evolutionist paleoantropologist Tim White:

We're all frustrated by "all the questions we haven't been able to answer." 103

Locke's article reviews the impasse of the theory of evolution on the ori-gins of man and the groundlessness of the propaganda spread about thissubject:

Perhaps no area of science is more contentious than the search for human ori-gins. Elite paleontologists disagree over even the most basic outlines of the

The myth of human evolution is based on no scientific findings whatsoever. Rep-resentations such as the above have no other significance than reflecting evolu-tionists’ imaginative wishful thinking.


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human family tree. New branches grow amid great fanfare, only to witherand die in the face of new fossil finds.104

The same fact was also recently accepted by Henry Gee, the editor ofthe well-known journal Nature. In his book In Search of Deep Time, pub-lished in 1999, Gee points out that all the evidence for human evolution"between about 10 and 5 million years ago-several thousand generationsof living creatures-can be fitted into a small box." He concludes that con-ventional theories of the origin and development of human beings are "acompletely human invention created after the fact, shaped to accord withhuman prejudices" and adds:

To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientifichypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity asbedtime story-amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific.105

What, then, is the reason that makes so many scientists so tenaciousabout this dogma? Why have they been trying so hard to keep their theoryalive, at the cost of having to admit countless conflicts and discarding theevidence they have found?

The only answer is their being afraid of the fact they will have to face incase of abandoning the theory of evolution. The fact they will have to facewhen they abandon evolution is that Allah has created man. However, con-sidering the presuppositions they have and the materialistic philosophythey believe in, creation is an unacceptable concept for evolutionists.

For this reason, they deceive themselves, as well as the world, byusing the media with which they co-operate. If they cannot find the neces-sary fossils, they "fabricate" them either in the form of imaginary picturesor fictitious models and try to give the impression that there indeed existfossils verifying evolution. A part of mass media who share their material-istic point of view also try to deceive the public and instil the story of evo-lution in people's subconscious.

No matter how hard they try, the truth is evident: Man has come intoexistence not through an evolutionary process but by Allah's creation.Therefore, he is responsible to Him.

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I n previous sections of this book, we have shown how the fossil recordinvalidates the theory of evolution. In point of fact, there was no needfor us to relate any of that, because the theory of evolution collapses

long before one gets to any claims about the evidence of fossils. The subjectthat renders the theory meaningless from the very outset is the question ofhow life first appeared on earth.

When it addresses this question, evolutionary theory claims that lifestarted with a cell that formed by chance. According to this scenario, fourbillion years ago various lifeless chemical compounds underwent a reac-tion in the primordial atmosphere on the earth in which the effects of thun-derbolts and atmospheric pressure led to the formation of the first livingcell.

The first thing that must be said is that the claim that inanimate mate-rials can come together to form life is an unscientific one that has not beenverified by any experiment or observation. Life is only generated from life.Each living cell is formed by the replication of another cell. No one in theworld has ever succeeded in forming a living cell by bringing inanimatematerials together, not even in the most advanced laboratories.

The theory of evolution claims that a living cell-which cannot be pro-duced even when all the power of the human intellect, knowledge andtechnology are brought to bear-nevertheless managed to form by chanceunder primordial conditions of the earth. In the following pages, we willexamine why this claim is contrary to the most basic principles of scienceand reason.

The Tale of the "Cell Produced by Chance"

If one believes that a living cell can come into existence by coinci-dence, then there is nothing to prevent one from believing a similar storythat we will relate below. It is the story of a town:

One day, a lump of clay, pressed between the rocks in a barren land,

The Mo lec u lar

Im passe of Ev o lu tion

10Chap ter

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becomes wet after it rains. The wet clay dries and hardens when the sunrises, and takes on a stiff, resistant form. Afterwards, these rocks, whichalso served as a mould, are somehow smashed into pieces, and then a neat,well shaped, and strong brick appears. This brick waits under the samenatural conditions for years for a similar brick to be formed. This goes onuntil hundreds and thousands of the same bricks have been formed in thesame place. However, by chance, none of the bricks that were previouslyformed are damaged. Although exposed to storm, rain, wind, scorchingsun, and freezing cold for thousands of years, the bricks do not crack,break up, or get dragged away, but wait there in the same place with thesame determination for other bricks to form.

When the number of bricks is adequate, they erect a building by beingarranged sideways and on top of each other, having been randomlydragged along by the effects of natural conditions such as winds, storms,or tornadoes. Meanwhile, materials such as cement or soil mixtures formunder "natural conditions", with perfect timing, and creep between thebricks to clamp them to each other. While all this is happening, iron oreunder the ground is shaped under "natural conditions" and lays the foun-dations of a building that is to be formed with these bricks. At the end ofthis process, a complete building rises with all its materials, carpentry, andinstallations intact.

Of course, a building does not only consist of foundations, bricks, andcement. How, then, are the other missing materials to be obtained? The an-swer is simple: all kinds of materials that are needed for the construction ofthe building exist in the earth on which it is erected. Silicon for the glass, cop-per for the electric cables, iron for the columns, beams, water pipes, etc. allexist under the ground in abundant quantities. It takes only the skill of "nat-ural conditions" to shape and place these materials inside the building. Allthe installations, carpentry, and accessories are placed among the bricks withthe help of the blowing wind, rain, and earthquakes. Everything has gone sowell that the bricks are arranged so as to leave the necessary window spacesas if they knew that something called glass would be formed later on by nat-ural conditions. Moreover, they have not forgotten to leave some space toallow the installation of water, electricity and heating systems, which arealso later to be formed by coincidence. Everything has gone so well that "co-incidences" and "natural conditions" produced a perfect design.

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The theory of evolution facesno greater crisis than on thepoint of explaining the emer-

gence of life. The reason is that or-ganic molecules are so complex thattheir formation cannot possibly beexplained as being coincidental andit is manifestly impossible for an or-ganic cell to have been formed bychance.

Evolutionists confronted thequestion of the origin of life in thesecond quarter of the 20th century.One of the leading authorities of thetheory of molecular evolution, theRussian evolutionist Alexander I.Oparin, said this in his book The Ori-gin of Life, which was published in1936:

Unfortunately, the origin of thecell remains a question which isactually the darkest point of thecomplete evolution theory.1

Since Oparin,evolutionistshave performedcountless experi-ments, con-ducted research,and made obser-vations to provethat a cell couldhave beenformed by chance. However, everysuch attempt only made clearer thecomplex structure of the cell andthus refuted the evolutionists' hy-potheses even more. ProfessorKlaus Dose, the president of the In-stitute of Biochemistry at the Uni-versity of Johannes Gutenberg,states:

More than 30 years of experimen-tation on the origin of life in thefields of chemical and molecularevolution have led to a better per-ception of the immensity of theproblem of the origin of life onEarth rather than to its solution.At present all dis-cussions on princi-pal theories andexperiments in thefield either end instalemate or in aconfession of igno-rance.2

The following state-ment by the geochemist JeffreyBada from San Diego Scripps Insti-tute makes clear the helplessness ofevolutionists concerning this im-passe:

Today as we leave the twentiethcentury, we still face the biggestunsolved problem that we hadwhen we entered the twentiethcentury: How did life originate onEarth?3

Con fes sions from Ev o lu tion ists

Al ex an der Opa rin:

Jef frey Ba da

1- Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life, (1936)

NewYork: Dover Publications, 1953 (Reprint),


2- Klaus Dose, "The Origin of Life: More Questions

Than Answers", Interdisciplinary Science Re-

views, Vol 13, No. 4, 1988, p. 348

3- Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998, p. 40

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 131

If you have managed to sustain your belief in this story so far, thenyou should have no trouble surmising how the town's other buildings,plants, highways, sidewalks, substructures, communications, and trans-portation systems came about. If you possess technical knowledge and arefairly conversant with the subject, you can even write an extremely "scien-tific" book of a few volumes stating your theories about "the evolutionaryprocess of a sewage system and its uniformity with the present structures".You may well be honoured with academic awards for your clever studies,and may consider yourself a genius, shedding light on the nature of hu-manity.

The theory of evolution, which claims that life came into existence bychance, is no less absurd than our story, for, with all its operational sys-tems, and systems of communication, transportation and management, acell is no less complex than a city.

The Miracle in the Cell and the End of Evolution

The complex structure of the living cell was unknown in Darwin'sday and at the time, ascribing life to "coincidences and natural conditions"was thought by evolutionists to be convincing enough.

The technology of the 20th century has delved into the tiniest parti-cles of life and has revealed that the cell is the most complex systemmankind has ever confronted. Today we know that the cell contains powerstations producing the energy to be used by the cell, factories manufactur-ing the enzymes and hormones essential for life, a databank where all thenecessary information about all products to be produced is recorded, com-plex transportation systems and pipelines for carrying raw materials andproducts from one place to another, advanced laboratories and refineriesfor breaking down external raw materials into their useable parts, and spe-cialised cell membrane proteins to control the incoming and outgoing ma-terials. And these constitute only a small part of this incredibly complexsystem.

W. H. Thorpe, an evolutionist scientist, acknowledges that "The mostelementary type of cell constitutes a 'mechanism' unimaginably morecomplex than any machine yet thought up, let alone constructed, byman."106

A cell is so complex that even the high level of technology attained

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The Com plex i ty of the Cell

NUCLEUSAll the information re-garding the humanbody is recorded as acomplex code in theDNA molecule here.

MITOCHONDRIAThe cell’s main source ofenergy. Here are synthe-sised all the ATP mole-cules necessary forbodily functions.

ENDOPLASMICRETICULUMIsolation and trans-portation of pro-teins and othermolecules.

CELL MEMBRANE GATESThese absorb oxygen and glucoseand expel substances such as pro-teins and enzymes synthesised bythe cell.

CELL MEMBRANEThanks to its selective permeability, the mem-brane performs the final selection of whichmolecules can enter and leave the cell.

The cell is the most complex and most elegant system man has ever witnessed. Professor of bi-

ology Michael Denton, in his book entitled Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, explains this complexity

with an example:

"To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a

cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant air-

ship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would then see would

be an object of unparalelled complexity and a marvelous structure. On the surface of the cell we

would see millions of openings, like port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to

allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these open-

ings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity... (a

complexity) beyond our own creative capacities, a reality which is the very antithesis of coinci-

dence, which excels in every sense anything produced by the intelligence of man..."

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 133

today cannot produce one. No effort to create an artificial cell has ever metwith success. Indeed, all attempts to do so have been abandoned.

The theory of evolution claims that this system-which mankind, withall the intelligence, knowledge and technology at its disposal, cannot suc-ceed in reproducing-came into existence "by chance" under the conditionsof the primordial earth. To give another example, the probability of form-ing of a cell by chance is about the same as that of producing a perfect copyof a book following an explosion in a printing-house.

The English mathematician and astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle made asimilar comparison in an interview published in Nature magazine on No-vember 12, 1981. Although an evolutionist himself, Hoyle stated that thechance that higher life forms might have emerged in this way is compara-ble to the chance that a tornado sweeping through a junk-yard might as-semble a Boeing 747 from the materials therein.107 This means that it isnot possible for the cell to have come into being by coincidence, and there-fore it must definitely have been "created".

One of the basic reasons why the theory of evolution cannot explainhow the cell came into existence is the "irreducible complexity" in it. A liv-ing cell maintains itself with the harmonious co-operation of many or-ganelles. If only one of these organelles fails to function, the cell cannotremain alive. It is not possible for a cell to wait for unconscious mecha-nisms like natural selection or mutation to permit it to develop. Thus, thefirst cell on earth was necessarily a complete cell possessing all the re-quired organelles and functions, and this definitely means that this cellhad to have been created.

Proteins Challenge Chance

So much for the cell, but the theory of evolution fails even to accountfor the building-blocks of a cell. The formation, under natural conditions,of just one single protein out of the thousands of complex protein mole-cules making up the cell is impossible.

Proteins are giant molecules consisting of smaller units called "aminoacids" that are arranged in a particular sequence in certain quantities andstructures. These units constitute the building blocks of a living protein.The simplest protein is composed of 50 amino acids, but there are somethat contain thousands.

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The crucial point is this. The absence, addition, or replacement of asingle amino acid in the structure of a protein causes the protein to becomea useless molecular heap. Every amino acid has to be in the right place andin the right order. The theory of evolution, which claims that life emergedas a result of chance, is quite helpless in the face of this order, since it is toowondrous to be explained by coincidence. (Furthermore the theory cannoteven substantiate the claim of the accidental formation of proteins, as willbe discussed later.)

The fact that it is quite impossible for the functional structure of pro-teins to come about by chance can easily be observed even by simple prob-ability calculations that anybody can understand.

For instance, an average-sized protein molecule composed of 288amino acids, and contains twelve different types of amino acids can bearranged in 10300 different ways. (This is an astronomically huge number,consisting of 1 followed by 300 zeros.) Of all these possible sequences, onlyone forms the desired protein molecule. The rest of them are amino-acidchains that are either totally useless or else potentially harmful to livingthings.

In other words, the probability of the formation of only one proteinmolecule is "1 in 10300". The probability of this "1" to occur is practically nil.(In practice, probabilities smaller than 1 over 1050 are thought of as "zeroprobability").

Furthermore, a protein molecule of 288 amino acids is a rather modestone compared with some giant protein molecules consisting of thousandsof amino acids. When we apply similar probability calculations to thesegiant protein molecules, we see that even the word "impossible" is insuffi-cient to describe the true situation.

When we proceed one step further in the evolutionary scheme of life,we observe that one single protein means nothing by itself. One of thesmallest bacteria ever discovered, Mycoplasma hominis H39, contains 600"types" of proteins. In this case, we would have to repeat the probabilitycalculations we have made above for one protein for each of these 600 dif-ferent types of proteins. The result beggars even the concept of impossibil-ity.

Some people reading these lines who have so far accepted the theoryof evolution as a scientific explanation may suspect that these numbers are

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 135

exaggerated and do not reflect the true facts. That is not the case: these aredefinite and concrete facts. No evolutionist can object to these numbers.They accept that the probability of the coincidental formation of a singleprotein is "as unlikely as the possibility of a monkey writing the history ofhumanity on a typewriter without making any mistakes".108 However, in-stead of accepting the other explanation, which is creation, they go on de-fending this impossibility.

This situation is in fact acknowledged by many evolutionists. For ex-ample, Harold F. Blum, a prominent evolutionist scientist, states that "Thespontaneous formation of a polypeptide of the size of the smallestknown proteins seems beyond all probability." 109

Evolutionists claim that molecular evolution took place over a verylong period of time and that this made the impossible possible. Neverthe-less, no matter how long the given period may be, it is not possible foramino acids to form proteins by chance. William Stokes, an American ge-ologist, admits this fact in his book Essentials of Earth History, writing thatthe probability is so small "that it would not occur during billions ofyears on billions of planets, each covered by a blanket of concentratedwatery solution of the necessary amino acids." 110

So what does all this mean? Perry Reeves, a professor of chemistry,answers the question:

The chemical structure of even a single cythochrome-C protein (above left) istoo complex to be accounted for in terms of chance—so much so, in fact,that the Turkish evolutionist biologist professor Ali Demirsoy admits that thechance formation of a single cythochrome-C sequence "as unlikely as thepossibility of a monkey writing the history of humanity on a typewriter with-out making any mistakes.”

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When one examines the vast number of possible structures that could resultfrom a simple random combination of amino acids in an evaporating primor-dial pond, it is mind-boggling to believe that life could have originated inthis way. It is more plausible that a Great Builder with a master plan wouldbe required for such a task.111

If the coincidental formation of even one of these proteins is impossi-ble, it is billions of times "more impossible" for some one million of thoseproteins to come together properly by chance and make up a complete cell.What is more, by no means does a cell consist of a mere heap of proteins. Inaddition to the proteins, a cell also includes nucleic acids, carbohydrates,lipids, vitamins, and many other chemicals such as electrolytes arrangedin a specific proportion, equilibrium, and organization in terms of bothstructure and function. Each of these elements functions as a buildingblock or co-molecule in various organelles.

Robert Shapiro, a professor of chemistry at New York University anda DNA expert, calculated the probability of the coincidental formation ofthe 2000 types of proteins found in a single bacterium (There are 200,000different types of proteins in a human cell). The number that was foundwas 1 over 1040000.112 (This is an incredible number obtained by putting40,000 zeros after the 1)

A professor of applied mathematics and astronomy from UniversityCollege Cardiff, Wales, Chandra Wickramasinghe, comments:

The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matteris one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it... It is big enough to buryDarwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup,neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were notrandom, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelli-gence.113

Sir Fred Hoyle comments on these implausible numbers:Indeed, such a theory (that life was assembled by an intelligence) is so obvi-ous that one wonders why it is not widely accepted as being self-evident. Thereasons are psychological rather than scientific.114

The reason Hoyle used the term "psychological" is the self-condition-ing of evolutionists not to accept that life could have been created. The re-jection of Allah's existence is their main goal. For this reason alone, they goon defending irrational theories which they at the same time acknowledgeto be impossible.

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Left-handed Proteins

Let us now examine in detail why the evolutionist scenario regardingthe formation of proteins is impossible.

Even the correct sequence of the right amino acids is still not enoughfor the formation of a functional protein molecule. In addition to these re-quirements, each of the 20 different types of amino acids present in thecomposition of proteins must be left-handed. There are two different typesof amino acids-as of all organic molecules-called "left-handed" and "right-handed". The difference between them is the mirror-symmetry betweentheir three dimensional structures, which is similar to that of a person'sright and left hands.

Amino acids of either of these two types can easily bond with one an-other. But one astonishing fact that has been revealed by research is that allthe proteins in plants and animals on this planet, from the simplest organ-ism to the most complex, are made up of left-handed amino acids. If evena single right-handed amino acid gets attached to the structure of a pro-tein, the protein is rendered useless. In a series of experiments, surpris-ingly, bacteria that were exposed to right-handed amino acidsimmediately destroyed them. In some cases, they produced usable left-handed amino acids from the fractured components.

The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 137

In nature, there are two different types of amino acids, called "left-handed" and"right-handed". The difference between them is the mirror-symmetry betweentheir three dimensional structures, which is similar to that of a person's rightand left hands.

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Let us for an instant suppose that life came about by chance as evolu-tionists claim it did. In this case, the right- and left-handed amino acidsthat were generated by chance should be present in roughly equal propor-tions in nature. Therefore, all living things should have both right- andleft-handed amino acids in their constitution, because chemically it is pos-sible for amino acids of both types to combine with each other. However,as we know, in the real world the proteins existing in all living organismsare made up only of left-handed amino acids.

The question of how proteins can pick out only the left-handed onesfrom among all amino acids, and how not even a single right-handedamino acid gets involved in the life process, is a problem that still bafflesevolutionists. Such a specific and conscious selection constitutes one of thegreatest impasses facing the theory of evolution.

Moreover, this characteristic of proteins makes the problem facingevolutionists with respect to "coincidence" even worse. In order for a"meaningful" protein to be generated, it is not enough for the amino acidsto be present in a particular number and sequence, and to be combined to-gether in the right three-dimensional design. Additionally, all these aminoacids have to be left-handed: not even one of them can be right-handed.Yet there is no natural selection mechanism which can identify that a right-handed amino acid has been added to the sequence and recognise that itmust therefore be removed from the chain. This situation once more elim-inates for good the possibility of coincidence and chance.

The Brittanica Science Encyclopaedia, which is an outspoken defenderof evolution, states that the amino acids of all the living organisms onearth, and the building blocks of complex polymers such as proteins, havethe same left-handed asymmetry. It adds that this is tantamount to tossinga coin a million times and always getting heads. The same encyclopaediastates that it is impossible to understand why molecules become left-handed or right-handed, and that this choice is fascinatingly related to theorigin of life on earth.115

If a coin always turns up heads when tossed a million times, is it morelogical to attribute that to chance, or else to accept that there is consciousintervention going on? The answer should be obvious. However, obviousthough it may be, evolutionists still take refuge in coincidence, simply be-cause they do not want to accept the existence of Allah.

A situation similar to the left-handedness of amino acids also exists

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 139

with respect to nucleotides, the smallest units of the nucleic acids, DNAand RNA. In contrast to proteins, in which only left-handed amino acidsare chosen, in the case of the nucleic acids, the preferred forms of their nu-cleotide components are always right-handed. This is another fact that cannever be explained by coincidence.

In conclusion, it is proven beyond a shadow of doubt by the probabili-ties we have examined that the origin of life cannot be explained by chance.If we attempt to calculate the probability of an average-sized protein con-sisting of 400 amino acids being selected only from left-handed amino acids,we come up with a probability of 1 in 2400, or 10120. Just for a comparison, letus remember that the number of electrons in the universe is estimated at1079, which although vast, is a much smaller number. The probability ofthese amino acids forming the required sequence and functional formwould generate much larger numbers. If we add these probabilities to eachother, and if we go on to work out the probabilities of even higher numbersand types of proteins, the calculations become inconceivable.

Correct Bond is Vital

The difficulties the theory of evolution is unable to overcome with re-gard to the development of a single protein are not limited to those wehave recounted so far. It is not enough for amino acids to be arranged inthe correct numbers, sequences, and required three-dimensional struc-tures. The formation of a protein also requires that amino acid moleculeswith more than one arm be linked to each other only in certain ways. Sucha bond is called a "peptide bond". Amino acids can make different bondswith each other; but proteins are made up of those-and only those-aminoacids which are joined by "peptide" bonds.

A comparison will clarify this point. Suppose that all the parts of a carwere complete and correctly assembled, with the sole exception that one ofthe wheels was fastened in place not with the usual nuts and bolts, butwith a piece of wire, in such a way that its hub faced the ground. It wouldbe impossible for such a car to move even the shortest distance, no matterhow complex its technology or how powerful its engine. At first glance,everything would seem to be in the right place, but the faulty attachmentof even one wheel would make the entire car useless. In the same way, in aprotein molecule the joining of even one amino acid to another with a

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bond other than a peptide bondwould make the entire moleculeuseless.

Research has shown thatamino acids combining at ran-dom combine with a peptidebond only 50% of the time, andthat the rest of the time differentbonds that are not present in pro-teins emerge. To function prop-erly, each amino acid making upa protein must be joined to othersonly with a peptide bond, in thesame way that it likewise must bechosen only from among left-handed forms.

This probability of this hap-pening is the same as the proba-bility of each protein's beingleft-handed. That is, when weconsider a protein made up of 400amino acids, the probability of allamino acids combining amongthemselves with only peptidebonds is 1 in 2399.

Zero Probability

As can be seen below, theprobability of formation of a pro-tein molecule made up of 500amino acids is "1" over a numberformed by placing 950 zeros nextto 1, which is a number incompre-hensible for the human mind.This is a probability only onpaper. Practically speaking, there

The amino acid molecules that makeup proteins must be linked to eachother in a so-called “peptide bond”,which is only one of the many possi-ble types of bonds found in nature.Otherwise, the resulting amino acidchains would be useless, and no pro-teins would be formed.



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There are 3 basic conditions for the formation of a useful protein:

First condition: that all the amino acids in the protein chain are of the right type and in the right sequence

Second condition: that all the amino acids in the chain are left-handed

Third condition: that all of these amino acids are united between them by forming a chemical bond called "peptidebond".

In order for a protein to be formed by chance, all three basic conditions must exist simultaneously. The probabilityof the formation of a protein by chance is equal to the multiplication of the probabilities of the realisation of each ofthese conditions.

For instance, for an average molecule comprising of 500 amino acids:

1. The probability of the amino acids being in the right sequence:

There are 20 types of amino acids used in the composition of proteins. According to this:

- The probability of each amino acid being chosen correctly among these 20 types = 1/20

- The probability of all of those 500 amino acids being chosen correctly = 1/20500 = 1/10650

= 1 chance in 10650

2. The probability of the amino acids being left-handed:

- The probability of only one amino acid being left-handed = 1/2

- The probability of all of those 500 amino acids being left-handed at the same time = 1/2500 = 1/10150

= 1 chance in 10150

3. The probability of the amino acids being combined with a "peptide bond":

Amino acids can combine with each other with different kinds of chemical bonds. In order for a useful protein to beformed, all the amino acids in the chain must have been combined with a special chemical bond called a "peptidebond". It is calculated that the probability of the amino acids being combined not with another chemical bond but bya peptide bond is 50%. In relation to this:

- The probability of two amino acids being combined with a "peptide bond" = 1/2

- The probability of 500 amino acids all combining with peptide bonds = 1/2499 = 1/10150

= 1 chance in 10150

Zero Probability

TO TAL PROB A BIL I TY = 1/10650 x 1/10150x 1/10150 = 1/10950

= 1 probability in 10950

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is zero chance of its actually happening. As we saw earlier, in mathemat-ics, a probability smaller than 1 in 1050 is statistically considered to have a"0" probability of occurring.

A probability of "1 over 10950" is far beyond the limits of this defini-tion.

While the improbability of the formation of a protein molecule madeup of 500 amino acids reaches such an extent, we can further proceed topush the limits of the mind with higher levels of improbability. In the"haemoglobin" molecule, which is a vital protein, there are 574 amino acids,which is more than the amino acids making up the protein mentionedabove. Now consider this: in only one out of the billions of red blood cells inyour body, there are "280,000,000" (280 million) haemoglobin molecules.

The supposed age of the earth is not sufficient to allow the formationof even a single protein by a "trial and error" method, let alone that of a redblood cell. Even if we suppose that amino acids have combined and de-composed by a "trial and error" method without losing any time since theformation of the earth, in order to form a single protein molecule, the time

The probability of an average protein molecule made up of 500 aminoacids being arranged in the correct quantity and sequence in additionto the probability of all of the amino acids it contains being only left-

handed and being combined with only peptide bonds is "1" over 10950.We can write this number which is formed by putting

950 zeros next to 1 as follows:

10950 =

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 143

that would be required for something with a probability of 10950 to happenwould still hugely exceed the estimated age of the earth.

The conclusion to be drawn from all this is that evolution falls into aterrible abyss of improbability even when it comes to the formation of asingle protein.

Is There a Trial and Error Mechanism in Nature?

Finally, we may conclude with a very important point in relation tothe basic logic of probability calculations, of which we have already seensome examples. We indicated that the probability calculations made abovereach astronomical levels, and that these astronomical odds have no chanceof actually happening. However, there is a much more important and dam-aging fact facing evolutionists here. This is that under natural conditions, noperiod of trial and error can even start, despite the astronomical odds, be-cause there is no trial-and-error mechanism in nature from which proteinscould emerge.

The calculations we give on page across to demonstrate the probabilityof the formation of a protein molecule with 500 amino acids are valid only foran ideal trial-and-error environment, which does not actually exist in real life.That is, the probability of obtaining a useful protein is "1" in 10950 only if wesuppose that there exists an imaginary mechanism in which an invisiblehand joins 500 amino acids at random and then, seeing that this is not theright combination, disentangles them one by one, and arranges them againin a different order, and so on. In each trial, the amino acids would have tobe separated one by one, and be arranged in a new order. The synthesisshould be stopped after the 500th amino acid has been added, and it mustbe ensured that not even one extra amino acid is involved. The trial shouldthen be stopped to see whether or not a functional protein has yet beenformed, and, in the event of failure, everything should be split up againand then tested for another sequence. Additionally, in each trial, not evenone extraneous substance should be allowed to become involved. It is alsoimperative that the chain formed during the trial should not be separatedand destroyed before reaching the 499th link. These conditions mean thatthe probabilities we have mentioned above can only operate in a con-trolled environment where there is a conscious mechanism directing thebeginning, the end, and each intermediate stage of the process, and where

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only "the correct selection of the amino acids" is left uncontrolled. It isclearly impossible for such an environment to exist under natural condi-tions. Therefore the formation of a protein in the natural environment islogically and technically impossible. In fact, to talk of the probabilities ofsuch an event is quite unscientific.

Since some people are unable to take a broad view of these matters,but approach them from a superficial viewpoint and assume protein for-mation to be a simple chemical reaction, they may make unrealistic deduc-tions such as "amino acids combine by way of reaction and then formproteins". However, accidental chemical reactions taking place in an inan-imate structure can only lead to simple and primitive changes. The num-ber of these is predetermined and limited. For a somewhat more complexchemical material, huge factories, chemical plants, and laboratories haveto be involved. Medicines and many other chemical materials that we usein our daily life are made in just this way. Proteins have much more com-plex structures than these chemicals produced by industry. Therefore, it isimpossible for proteins, each of which is a wonder of creation, in whichevery part takes its place in a fixed order, to originate as a result of hap-hazard chemical reactions.

Let us for a minute put aside all the impossibilities we have describedso far, and suppose that a useful protein molecule still evolved sponta-neously "by accident". Even so, evolution again has no answers, because inorder for this protein to survive, it would need to be isolated from its nat-ural habitat and be protected under very special conditions. Otherwise, itwould either disintegrate from exposure to natural conditions on earth, orelse join with other acids, amino acids, or chemical compounds, therebylosing its particular properties and turning into a totally different and use-less substance.

The Evolutionary Fuss About the Origin of Life

The question of "how living things first appeared" is such a criticalimpasse for evolutionists that they usually try not even to touch upon thissubject. They try to pass over this question by saying "the first creaturescame into existence as a result of some random events in water". They areat a road-block that they can by no means get around. In spite of the pale-ontological evolution arguments, in this subject they have no fossils avail-


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able to distort and misinterpret as they wish to support their assertions.Therefore, the theory of evolution is definitely refuted from the very be-ginning.

Above all, there is one important point to take into consideration: Ifany one step in the evolutionary process is proven to be impossible, thisis sufficient to prove that the whole theory is totally false and invalid.For instance, by proving that the haphazard formation of proteins is im-possible, all other claims regarding the subsequent steps of evolution arealso refuted. After this, it becomes meaningless to take some human andape skulls and engage in speculation about them.

How living organisms came into existence out of nonliving matterwas an issue that evolutionists did not even want to mention for a longtime. However, this question, which had constantly been avoided, eventu-ally had to be addressed, and attempts were made to settle it with a seriesof experiments in the second quarter of the 20th century.

The main question was: How could the first living cell have appearedin the primordial atmosphere on the earth? In other words, what kind ofexplanation could evolutionists offer?

The answers to the questions were sought through experiments. Evo-lutionist scientists and researchers carried out laboratory experiments di-rected at answering these questions but these did not create much interest.The most generally respected study on the origin of life is the Miller ex-periment conducted by the American researcher Stanley Miller in 1953.(The experiment is also known as "Urey-Miller experiment" because of thecontribution of Miller's instructor at the University of Chicago, HaroldUrey.)

This experiment is the only "evidence" evolutionists have with whichto allegedly prove the "molecular evolution thesis"; they advance it as thefirst stage of the supposed evolutionary process leading to life. Althoughnearly half a century has passed, and great technological advances havebeen made, nobody has made any further progress. In spite of this, Miller'sexperiment is still taught in textbooks as the evolutionary explanation ofthe earliest generation of living things. Aware of the fact that such studiesdo not support, but rather actually refute, their thesis, evolutionist re-searchers deliberately avoid embarking on such experiments.

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Miller's Experiment

Stanley Miller's aim was to demonstrate by means of an experimentthat amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, could have come into ex-istence "by chance" on the lifeless earth billions of years ago.

In his experiment, Miller used a gas mixture that he assumed to haveexisted on the primordial earth (but which later proved unrealistic) com-posed of ammonia, methane, hydrogen, and water vapour. Since thesegasses would not react with each other under natural conditions, he addedenergy to the mixture to start a reaction among them. Supposing that thisenergy could have come from lightning in the primordial atmosphere, heused an electric current for this purpose.

Miller heated this gas mixture at 1000C for a week and added the elec-trical current. At the end of the week, Miller analysed the chemicals whichhad formed at the bottom of the jar, and observed that three out of the 20amino acids, which constitute the basic elements of proteins had been syn-thesised.

This experiment aroused great excitement among evolutionists, andwas promoted as an outstanding success. Moreover, in a state of intoxi-cated euphoria, various publications carried headlines such as "Miller cre-ates life". However, what Miller had managed to synthesise was only a few"inanimate" molecules.

Encouraged by this experiment, evolutionists immediately producednew scenarios. Stages following the development of amino acids were hur-riedly hypothesised. Supposedly, amino acids had later united in the cor-rect sequences by accident to form proteins. Some of these proteins whichemerged by chance formed themselves into cell membrane-like structureswhich "somehow" came into existence and formed a primitive cell. Thecells then supposedly came together over time to form multicellular livingorganisms. However, Miller's experiment was nothing but make-believeand has since proven to be false in many aspects.

Miller's Experiment was Nothing but Make-believe

Miller's experiment sought to prove that amino acids could form ontheir own in primordial earth-like conditions, but it contains inconsisten-cies in a number of areas:

1. By using a mechanism called a "cold trap", Miller isolated the

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T oday, Miller's experiment is to-tally disregarded even by evo-lutionist scientists. In the

February 1998 issue of the famousevolutionist science journal Earth, thefollowing statements appear in an ar-ticle titled "Life's Crucible":

Geologist now think that the pri-mordial atmosphere consistedmainly of carbon dioxide and ni-trogen, gases that are less reac-tive than those used in the 1953experiment. And even if Miller's at-mosphere could have existed, howdo you get simple molecules suchas amino acids to go through thenecessary chemical changes thatwill convert them into more com-plicated compounds, or polymers,such as proteins? Miller himselfthrows up his hands at that part ofthe puzzle. "It's a problem," hesighs with exasperation. "How doyou make polymers? That's not soeasy."1

As seen, today even Miller himselfhas accepted that his experimentdoes not lead to an explanation of theorigin of life. The fact that evolutionistscientists embraced this experimentso fervently only indicates the diffi-culties facing evolution, and the des-peration of its advocates.

In the March 1998 issue of Na-tional Geographic, in an article titled"The Emergence of Life on Earth", thefollowing comments appear:

Many scientists now suspect thatthe early atmosphere was differentfrom what Miller first supposed.They think it consisted of carbondioxide and nitrogen rather thanhydrogen, methane, and ammonia.

That's bad news for chemists.When they try sparking carbondioxide and nitrogen, they get apaltry amount of organic mole-cules - the equivalent of dis-solving a drop of food colouring ina swimming pool of water. Scien-tists find it hard to imagine lifeemerging from such a dilutedsoup.2

In brief, neither Miller's experi-ment, nor any other similar one thathas been attempted, can answer thequestion of how life emerged onearth. All of the research that hasbeen done shows that it is impossiblefor life to emerge by chance, and thusconfirms that life is created.

1- Earth, "Life's Crucible", February 1998, p.34

2- National Geographic, "The Rise of Life on

Earth", March 1998, p.68

Lat est Ev o lu tion ist Sour ces Dis pute Mil ler's Ex per i ment

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amino acids from the environment as soon as they were formed. Had henot done so, the conditions in the environment in which the amino acidswere formed would immediately have destroyed these molecules.

Doubtless, this kind of a conscious mechanism of isolation did notexist on the primordial earth. Without such a mechanism, even if oneamino acid were obtained, it would immediately have been destroyed.The chemist Richard Bliss expresses this contradiction by observing that"Actually, without this trap, the chemical products would have been de-stroyed by the energy source."114

And, sure enough, in his previous experiments, Miller had been un-able to make even one single amino acid using the same materials withoutthe cold trap mechanism.

2. The primordial atmospheric environment that Miller attemptedto simulate in his experiment was not realistic. In the 1980s, scientistsagreed that nitrogen and carbon dioxide should have been used in this ar-tificial environment instead of methane and ammonia. After a long periodof silence, Miller himself also confessed that the atmospheric environmenthe used in his experiment was not realistic.119

So why did Miller insist on these gasses? The answer is clear: withoutammonia, it was impossible to synthesise any amino acid. Kevin Mc Keantalks about this in an article published in Discover magazine:

Miller and Urey imitated the ancient atmosphere on the Earth with a mixtureof methane and ammonia. According to them, the Earth was a true hom*oge-neous mixture of metal, rock and ice. However in the latest studies, it hasbeen understood that the Earth was very hot at those times, and that it wascomposed of melted nickel and iron. Therefore, the chemical atmosphere ofthat time should have been formed mostly of nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapour (H2O). However these are not as appropriate asmethane and ammonia for the production of organic molecules.118

The American scientists J.P. Ferris and C.T. Chen repeated Miller's ex-periment with an atmospheric environment that contained carbon dioxide,hydrogen, nitrogen, and water vapour, and were unable to obtain even asingle amino acid molecule.119

3. Another important point that invalidates Miller's experiment is thatthere was enough oxygen to destroy all the amino acids in the atmos-phere at the time when they were thought to have been formed. This fact,overlooked by Miller, is revealed by the traces of oxidised iron and ura-

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nium found in rocks that are estimated to be 3.5 billion years old.120

There are other findings showing that the amount of oxygen in the at-mosphere at that time was much higher than originally claimed by evolution-ists. Studies also show that at that time, the amount of ultraviolet radiation towhich the earth was then exposed was 10,000 times more than evolutionists'estimates. This intense radiation would unavoidably have freed oxygen bydecomposing the water vapour and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

This situation completely negates Miller's experiment, in which oxygenwas completely neglected. If oxygen had been used in the experiment,methane would have decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, and am-monia into nitrogen and water. On the other hand, in an environment wherethere was no oxygen, there would be no ozone layer either; therefore, theamino acids would have immediately been destroyed, since they would havebeen exposed to the most intense ultraviolet rays without the protection ofthe ozone layer. In other words, with or without oxygen in the primordialworld, the result would have been a deadly environment for the amino acids.

4. At the end of Miller's experiment, many organic acids had beenformed with characteristics detrimental to the structure and function ofliving things. If the amino acids had not been isolated, and had been left inthe same environment with these chemicals, their destruction or transfor-mation into different compounds through chemical reactions would havebeen unavoidable.

Moreover, a large number of right-handed amino acids were formedat the end of the experiment.121 The existence of these amino acids refutedthe theory even within its own terms because right-handed amino acidscannot function in the composition of living organisms. To conclude, thecirc*mstances in which amino acids were formed in Miller's experimentwere not suitable for life. In truth, this medium took the form of an acidicmixture destroying and oxidising the useful molecules obtained.

All these facts point to one firm truth: Miller's experiment cannotclaim to have proved that living things formed by chance under primor-dial earth-like conditions. The whole experiment is nothing more than adeliberate and controlled laboratory experiment to synthesise amino acids.The amount and types of the gases used in the experiment were ideally de-termined to allow amino acids to originate. The amount of energy suppliedto the system was neither too much nor too little, but arranged precisely toenable the necessary reactions to occur. The experimental apparatus was

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isolated, so that it would not allow the leaking of any harmful, destructive,or any other kind of elements to hinder the formation of amino acids. Noelements, minerals or compounds that were likely to have been present onthe primordial earth, but which would have changed the course of the re-actions, were included in the experiment. Oxygen, which would have pre-vented the formation of amino acids because of oxidation, is only one ofthese destructive elements. Even under such ideal laboratory conditions, itwas impossible for the amino acids produced to survive and avoid de-struction without the "cold trap" mechanism.

In fact, by his experiment, Miller destroyed evolution's claim that "lifeemerged as the result of unconscious coincidences". That is because, if theexperiment proves anything, it is that amino acids can only be produced in acontrolled laboratory environment where all the conditions are specificallydesigned by conscious intervention. That is, the power that brings about lifecannot be by unconscious chance but rather by Creation.

The reason evolutionists do not accept this evident reality is theirblind adherence to prejudices that are totally unscientific. Interestinglyenough, Harold Urey, who organised the Miller experiment with his stu-dent Stanley Miller, made the following confession on the subject:

All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, themore we feel it is too complex to have evolved anywhere. We all believe asan article of faith that life evolved from dead matter on this planet. It is justthat its complexity is so great, it is hard for us to imagine that it did.122

Primordial World Atmosphere and Proteins

Evolutionist sources use the Miller experiment, despite all of its in-consistencies, to try to gloss over the question of the origin of amino acids.By giving the impression that the issue has long since been resolved bythat invalid experiment, they try to paper over the cracks in the theory ofevolution.

However, to explain the second stage of the origin of life, evolution-ists faced an even greater problem than that of the formation of aminoacids-namel, the origin of proteins, the building blocks of life, which arecomposed of hundreds of different amino acids bonding with each otherin a particular order.

Claiming that proteins were formed by chance under natural condi-

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tions is even more unrealistic and unreasonable than claiming that aminoacids were formed by chance. In the preceding pages we have seen themathematical impossibility of the haphazard uniting of amino acids inproper sequences to form proteins with probability calculations. Now, wewill examine the impossibility of proteins being produced chemicallyunder primordial earth conditions.

Protein Synthesis is not Possible in Water

As we saw before, when combining to form proteins, amino acidsform a special bond with one another called the "peptide bond". A watermolecule is released during the formation of this peptide bond.

This fact definitely refutes the evolutionist explanation that primor-dial life originated in water, because according to the "Le Châtelier princi-ple" in chemistry, it is not possible for a reaction that releases water (acondensation reaction) to take place in a hydrous environment. The

The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion

One of the evolutionists’ gravest deceptions is the way they imagine that life couldhave emerged spontaneously on what they refer to as the primitive Earth, repre-sented in the picture above. They tried to prove these claims with such studies as theMiller experiment. Yet they again suffered defeat in the face of the scientific facts: Theresults obtained in the 1970s proved that the atmosphere on what they describe asthe primitive Earth was totally unsuited to life.

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chances of this kind of a reaction happening in a hydrate environment issaid to "have the least probability of occurring" of all chemical reactions.

Hence the ocean, which is claimed to be where life began and aminoacids originated, is definitely not an appropriate setting for amino acids toform proteins. On the other hand, it would be irrational for evolutionists tochange their minds and claim that life originated on land, because the onlyenvironment where amino acids could have been protected from ultravio-let radiation is in the oceans and seas. On land, they would be destroyedby ultraviolet rays. The Le Châtelier Principle disproves the claim of theformation of life in the sea. This is another dilemma confronting evolution.

Another Desperate Effort: Fox's Experiment

Challenged by the above dilemma, evolutionists began to invent un-realistic scenarios based on this "water problem" that so definitively re-futed their theories. Sydney Fox was one of the best known of theseresearchers. Fox advanced the following theory to solve this problem. Ac-cording to him, the first amino acids must have been transported to somecliffs near a volcano right after their formation in the primordial ocean.The water contained in this mixture that included the amino acids presenton the cliffs, must have evaporated when the temperature increased aboveboiling point. The amino acids which were "dried out" in this way, couldthen have combined to form proteins.

However this "complicated" way out was not accepted by many peo-ple in the field, because the amino acids could not have endured such hightemperatures. Research confirmed that amino acids are immediately de-stroyed at very high temperatures.

But Fox did not give up. He combined purified amino acids in the lab-

In his experiment, Fox produced a sub-stance called "proteinoid". Proteinoidswere randomly assembled combinations ofamino acids. Unlike proteins of livingthings, these were useless and non-func-tional chemicals. Here is an electron microscope vision of proteinoid particles.

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The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 153

oratory, "under very special conditions" by heating them in a dry environ-ment. The amino acids combined, but still no proteins were obtained.What he actually ended up with was simple and disordered loops ofamino acids, arbitrarily combined with each other, and these loops werefar from resembling any living protein. Furthermore, if Fox had kept theamino acids at a steady temperature, then these useless loops would alsohave disintegrated.123

Another point that nullified the experiment was that Fox did notusethe useless end products obtained in Miller's experiment; rather, heused pure amino acids from living organisms. This experiment, however,

Anumber of evolutionist experiments such as the Miller Experiment and theFox Experiment have been devised to prove the claim that inanimate mat-ter can organise itself and generate a complex living being. This is an ut-

terly unscientific conviction: every observation and experiment hasincontrovertibly proven that matter has no such ability. The famous English as-tronomer and mathematician Sir Fred Hoyle notes that matter cannot generatelife by itself, without deliberate interference:

If there were a basic principle of matter which somehow drove organic sys-tems toward life, its existence should easily be demonstrable in the labora-tory. One could, for instance, take a swimming bath to represent theprimordial soup. Fill it with any chemicals of a non-biological nature youplease. Pump any gases over it, or through it, you please, and shine any kindof radiation on it that takes your fancy. Let the experiment proceed for a yearand see how many of those 2,000 enzymes (proteins produced by living cells)have appeared in the bath. I will give the answer, and so save the time andtrouble and expense of actually doing the experiment. You will find nothing atall, except possibly for a tarry sludge composed of amino acids and othersimple organic chemicals.1

Evolutionist biologist Andrew Scott admits the same fact:

Take some matter, heat while stirring and wait. That is the modern version ofGenesis. The 'fundamental' forces of gravity, electromagnetism and thestrong and weak nuclear forces are presumed to have done the rest... Buthow much of this neat tale is firmly established, and how much remains hope-ful speculation? In truth, the mechanism of almost every major step, fromchemical precursors up to the first recognizable cells, is the subject of eithercontroversy or complete bewilderment.2

1- Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, New York, Holt, Rinehard & Winston, 1983, p. 2562- Andrew Scott, "Update on Genesis", New Scientist, vol. 106, May 2nd, 1985, p. 30


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which was intended to be a continuation of Miller's experiment, shouldhave started out from the results obtained by Miller. Yet neither Fox, norany other researcher, used the useless amino acids Miller produced.124

Fox's experiment was not even welcomed in evolutionist circles, be-cause it was clear that the meaningless amino acid chains that he obtained(which he termed "proteinoids") could not have formed under natural con-ditions. Moreover, proteins, the basic units of life, still could not be pro-duced. The problem of the origin of proteins remained unsolved. In anarticle in the popular science magazine, Chemical Engineering News, whichappeared in the 1970s, Fox's experiment was mentioned as follows:

Sydney Fox and the other researchers managed to unite the amino acids inthe shape of "proteinoids" by using very special heating techniques underconditions which in fact did not exist at all in the primordial stages of Earth.Also, they are not at all similar to the very regular proteins present in livingthings. They are nothing but useless, irregular chemical stains. It was ex-plained that even if such molecules had formed in the early ages, they woulddefinitely be destroyed.125

Indeed, the proteinoids Fox obtained were totally different from realproteins both in structure and function. The difference between proteinsand these proteinoids was as huge as the difference between a piece ofhigh-tech equipment and a heap of unprocessed iron.

Furthermore, there was no chance that even these irregular aminoacid chains could have survived in the primordial atmosphere. Harmfuland destructive physical and chemical effects caused by heavy exposure toultraviolet light and other unstable natural conditions would have causedthese proteinoids to disintegrate. Because of the Le Châtelier principle, itwas also impossible for the amino acids to combine underwater, where ul-traviolet rays would not reach them. In view of this, the idea that the pro-teinoids were the basis of life eventually lost support among scientists.

The Miraculous Molecule: DNAOur examinations so far have shown that the theory of evolution is in

a serious quandary at the molecular level. Evolutionists have shed no lighton the formation of amino acids at all. The formation of proteins, on theother hand, is another mystery all its own.

Yet the problems are not even limited just to amino acids and pro-teins: These are only the beginning. Beyond them, the extremely complex

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structure of the cell leads evolutionists to yet another impasse. The reasonfor this is that the cell is not just a heap of amino-acid-structured proteins,but rather the most complex system man has ever encountered.

While the theory of evolution was having such trouble providing acoherent explanation for the existence of the molecules that are the basisof the cell structure, developments in the science of genetics and the dis-covery of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) produced brand-new problemsfor the theory. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick launched a newage in biology with their work revealing the amazingly complex structureof DNA.

The molecule known as DNA, which is found in the nucleus of each ofthe 100 trillion cells in our bodies, contains the complete blueprint for theconstruction of the human body. The information regarding all the charac-teristics of a person, from physical appearance to the structure of the innerorgans, is recorded in DNA within the sequence of four special bases that

The molecule known asDNA, which is found inthe nucleus of each of the100 trillion cells in ourbodies, contains the com-plete blueprint for theconstruction of the humanbody. The information re-garding all the character-istics of a person, fromphysical appearance tothe structure of the innerorgans, is recorded inDNA.

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make up the giant molecule. These bases are known as A, T, G, and C, ac-cording to the initial letters of their names. All the structural differencesamong people depend on variations in the sequences of these letters. This isa sort of a data-bank composed of four letters.

The sequential order of the letters in DNA determines the structure ofa human being down to its slightest details. In addition to features such asheight, and eye, hair and skin colours, the DNA in a single cell also con-tains the design of the 206 bones, the 600 muscles, the 100 billion nervecells (neurons), 1.000 trillion connections between the neurons of the brain,97,000 kilometres of veins, and the 100 trillion cells of the human body. Ifwe were to write down the information coded in DNA, then we wouldhave to compile a giant library consisting of 900 volumes of 500 pageseach. But the information this enormous library would hold is encoded in-side the DNA molecules in the cell nucleus, which is far smaller than the1/100th-of-a-millimetre-long cell itself.

Why Cannot DNA Come into Being by Chance?

At this point, there is an important detail that deserves attention. Anerror in the sequence of the nucleotides making up a gene would renderthat gene completely useless. When it is considered that there are 30,000genes in the human body, it becomes clearer how impossible it is for themillions of nucleotides making up these genes to have been formed, in theright sequence, by chance. The evolutionist biologist Frank Salisbury hascomments on this impossibility:

A medium protein might include about 300 amino acids. The DNA gene con-trolling this would have about 1,000 nucleotides in its chain. Since there arefour kinds of nucleotides in a DNA chain, one consisting of 1,000 links couldexist in 41,000 forms. Using a little algebra (logarithms) we can see that41000=10600. Ten multiplied by itself 600 times gives the figure 1 followed by600 zeros! This number is completely beyond our comprehension.126

The number 41000 is the equivalent of 10600. This means 1 followed by600 zeros. As 1 with 12 zeros after it indicates a trillion, 600 zeros representsan inconceivable number. The impossibility of the formation of RNA andDNA by a coincidental accumulation of nucleotides is expressed by theFrench scientist Paul Auger in this way:

We have to sharply distinguish the two stages in the chance formation of


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complex molecules such as nu-cleotides by chemical events. Theproduction of nucleotides one byone - which is possible- and thecombination of these with in veryspecial sequences. The second isabsolutely impossible.127

For many years, FrancisCrick believed in the theory ofmolecular evolution, buteventually even he had toadmit to himself that such acomplex molecule could not

have emerged spontaneously by coincidence, as the result of an evolution-ary process:

An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, couldonly state that, in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to bealmost a miracle.128

The Turkish evolutionist Professor Ali Demirsoy was forced to makethe following confession on the issue:

In fact, the probability of the formation of a protein and a nucleic acid (DNA-RNA) is a probability way beyond estimating. Furthermore, the chance of theemergence of a certain protein chain is so slight as to be called astronomic.129

A very interesting paradox emerges at this point: While DNA canonly replicate with the help of special proteins (enzymes), the synthesis ofthese proteins can only be realised by the information encoded in DNA. Asthey both depend on each other, either they have to exist at the same timefor replication, or one of them has to be "created" before the other. TheAmerican microbiologist Homer Jacobson comments:

Directions for the reproduction of plans, for energy and the extraction ofparts from the current environment, for the growth sequence, and for the ef-fector mechanism translating instructions into growth-all had to be simulta-neously present at that moment [when life began]. This combination ofevents has seemed an incredibly unlikely happenstance, and has often beenascribed to divine intervention.130

The quotation above was written two years after the discovery of thestructure of DNA by Watson and Crick. But despite all the developmentsin science, this problem for evolutionists remains unsolved. Two German

Watson and Crick with a stick model of theDNA molecule.

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scientists Junker and Scherer explained that the synthesis of each of themolecules required for chemical evolution, necessitates distinct condi-tions, and that the probability of the compounding of these materials hav-ing theoretically very different acquirement methods is zero:

Until now, no experiment is known in which we can obtain all the moleculesnecessary for chemical evolution. Therefore, it is essential to produce variousmolecules in different places under very suitable conditions and then tocarry them to another place for reaction by protecting them from harmful el-ements like hydrolysis and photolysis.131

Probabilistic calculations make it clear that complex molecules such asproteins and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) could not ever have beenformed by chance independently of each other. Yet evolutionists have

to face the even greater problem that all these complex molecules have to co-exist simultaneously in order for life to exist at all. Evolutionary theory is ut-terly confounded by this requirement. This is a point on which some leadingevolutionists have been forced to confession. For instance, Stanley Miller'sand Francis Crick's close associate from the University of San Diego Califor-nia, reputable evolutionist Dr. Leslie Orgel says:

It is extremely improbable that proteins and nucleic acids, both of whichare structurally complex, arose spontaneously in the same place at thesame time. Yet it also seems impossible to have one without the other. Andso, at first glance, one might have to conclude that life could never, in fact,have originated by chemical means.1

The same fact is also admitted by other scientists:

DNA cannot do its work, including forming more DNA, without the help ofcatalytic proteins, or enzymes. In short, proteins cannot form without DNA,but neither can DNA form without proteins.2

How did the Genetic Code, along with the mechanisms for its translation(ribosomes and RNA molecules), originate? For the moment, we will haveto content ourselves with a sense of wonder and awe, rather than with ananswer.3

The New York Times science correspondent, Nicholas Wade made this com-ment in an article dated 2000:

Everything about the origin of life on Earth is a mystery, and it seems themore that is known, the more acute the puzzle get.4

1- Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on Earth", Scientific American, vol. 271, October 1994, p.782- John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific American, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 1193- Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, New York, VintageBooks, 1980, p. 5484- Nicholas Wade, "Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", The New York Times, June 13, 2000,pp. D1-D2


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In short, the theory of evolution is unable toprove any of the evolutionary stages that allegedlyoccur at the molecular level. Rather than providinganswers to such questions, the progress of science ren-ders them even more complex and inextricable.

Interestingly enough, most evolutionists be-lieve in this and similar totally unscientific fairy talesas if they were true. Because they have conditionedthemselves not to accept creation, they have no otherchoice than to believe in the impossible. One famousbiologist from Australia, Michael Denton, discussesthe subject in his book Evolution: A Theory in Crisis:

To the skeptic, the proposition that the genetic pro-grammes of higher organisms, consisting of some-thing close to a thousand million bits of information, equivalent to the sequenceof letters in a small library of 1,000 volumes, containing in encoded form count-less thousands of intricate algorithms controlling, specifying, and ordering thegrowth and development of billions and billions of cells into the form of a com-plex organism, were composed by a purely random process is simply an af-front to reason. But to the Darwinist, the idea is accepted without a ripple ofdoubt-the paradigm takes precedence!132

Another Evolutionist Vain Attempt: "The RNA World"

The discovery in the 1970s that the gasses originally existing in theprimitive atmosphere of the earth would have rendered amino acid syn-thesis impossible was a serious blow to the theory of molecular evolution.Evolutionists then had to face the fact that the "primitive atmosphere ex-periments" by Stanley Miller, Sydney Fox, Cyril Ponnamperuma and oth-ers were invalid. For this reason, in the 1980s the evolutionists tried again.As a result, the "RNA World" hypothesis was advanced. This scenario pro-posed that, not proteins, but rather the RNA molecules that contained theinformation for proteins, were formed first.

According to this scenario, advanced by Harvard chemist WalterGilbert in 1986, based on a discovery about "ribozymes" by Thomas Cech ,billions of years ago an RNA molecule capable of replicating itself formedsomehow by accident. Then this RNA molecule started to produce pro-teins, having been activated by external influences. Thereafter, it became

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Prof. Francis Crick:"The origin of life ap-

pears to be almost a miracle."

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necessary to store this information in a second molecule, and somehow theDNA molecule emerged to do that.

Made up as it is of a chain of impossibilities in each and every stage,this scarcely credible scenario, far from providing any explanation of theorigin of life, only magnified the problem, and raised many unanswerablequestions:

1. Since it is impossible to accept the coincidental formation of evenone of the nucleotides making up RNA, how can it be possible for theseimaginary nucleotides to form RNA by coming together in a particular se-quence? Evolutionist John Horgan admits the impossibility of the chanceformation of RNA;

As researchers continue to examine the RNA-world concept closely, moreproblems emerge. How did RNA initially arise? RNA and its components aredifficult to synthesize in a laboratory under the best of conditions, much lessunder really plausible ones.133

2. Even if we suppose that it formed by chance, how could this RNA,consisting of just a nucleotide chain, have "decided" to self-replicate, andwith what kind of mechanism could it have carried out this self-replicatingprocess? Where did it find the nucleotides it used while self-replicating?Even evolutionist microbiologists Gerald Joyce and Leslie Orgel expressthe desperate nature of the situation in their book In the RNA World:

This discussion… has, in a sense, focused on a straw man: the myth of a self-replicating RNA molecule that arose de novo from a soup of random polynu-cleotides. Not only is such a notion unrealistic in light of our currentunderstanding of prebiotic chemistry, but it would strain the credulity ofeven an optimist's view of RNA's catalytic potential.134

3. Even if we suppose that there was self-replicating RNA in the pri-mordial world, that numerous amino acids of every type ready to be usedby RNA were available, and that all of these impossibilities somehow tookplace, the situation still does not lead to the formation of even one singleprotein. For RNA only includes information concerning the structure of pro-teins. Amino acids, on the other hand, are raw materials. Nevertheless, thereis no mechanism for the production of proteins. To consider the existence ofRNA sufficient for protein production is as nonsensical as expecting a car toassemble itself simplyh throwing the blueprint onto a heap of parts piled upon top of each other. A blueprint cannot produce a car all by itself without afactory and workers to assemble the parts according to the instructions con-


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tained in the blueprint; in the same way, theblueprint contained in RNA cannot produceproteins by itself without the cooperation ofother cellular components which follow theinstructions contained in the RNA.

Proteins are produced in the ribosomefactory with the help of many enzymes andas a result of extremely complex processeswithin the cell. The ribosome is a complex cellorganelle made up of proteins. This leads,therefore, to another unreasonable supposi-tion-that ribosomes, too, should have comeinto existence by chance at the same time.Even Nobel Prize winner Jacques Monod,who was one of the most fanatical defenders of evolution-and atheism-ex-plained that protein synthesis can by no means be considered to dependmerely on the information in the nucleic acids:

The code is meaningless unless translated. The modern cell's translating ma-chinery consists of at least 50 macromolecular components, which are them-selves coded in DNA: the code cannot be translated otherwise than by products oftranslation themselves. It is the modern expression of omne vivum ex ovo. Whenand how did this circle become closed? It is exceedingly difficult to imag-ine.135

How could an RNA chain in the primordial world have taken such adecision, and what methods could it have employed to make protein pro-duction happen by doing the work of 50 specialized particles on its own?Evolutionists have no answer to these questions.

Dr. Leslie Orgel, one of the associates of Stanley Miller and FrancisCrick from the University of California at San Diego, uses the term "sce-nario" for the possibility of "the origination of life through the RNAWorld". Orgel described what kind of features this RNA have had to haveand how impossible this would have been in his article "The Origin of Life"published in American Scientist in October 1994:

This scenario could have occured, we noted, if prebiotic RNA had two prop-erties not evident today: A capacity to replicate without the help of proteinsand an ability to catalyze every step of protein synthesis.136

As should by now be clear, to expect these two complex and ex-

The Mo lec u lar Im passe of Ev o lu tion 161

Dr. Leslie Orgel: “... lifecould never, in fact, have

originated by chemicalmeans.”

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tremely essential processes from a molecule such as RNA is only possiblefrom the evolutionist's viewpoint and with the help of his power of imagi-nation. Concrete scientific facts, on the other hand, makes it explicit thatthe RNA World hypothesis, which is a new model proposed for the chanceformation of life, is an equally implausible fable.

Biochemist Gordon C. Mills from the University of Texas and Molec-ular biologist Dean Kenyon from San Francisco State University assess theflaws of the RNA World scenario, and reach to a brief conclusion in theirarticle titled " The RNA World: A Critique": "RNA is a remarkable molecule.The RNA World hypothesis is another matter. We see no grounds for consideringit established, or even promising." 137

Science writer Brig Klyce's 2001 article explains that evolutionist sci-entists are very persistent on this issue, but the results obtained so far havealready shown that these efforts are all in vain:

Research in the RNA world is a medium-sized industry. This research hasdemonstrated how exceedingly difficult it would be for living cells to origi-nate by chance from nonliving matter in the time available on Earth. Thatdemonstration is a valuable contribution to science. Additional research willbe valuable as well. But to keep insisting that life can spontaneously emergefrom nonliving chemicals in the face of the newly comprehended difficultiesis puzzling. It is reminiscent of the work of medieval alchemists who persis-tently tried to turn lead into gold.138

Life is a Concept Beyond Mere Heaps of Molecules

So far, we have examined how impossible the accidental formation oflife is. Let us again ignore these impossibilities for just a moment. Let ussuppose that a protein molecule was formed in the most inappropriate,most uncontrolled environment such as the primordial earth conditions.The formation of only one protein would not be sufficient; this proteinwould have to wait patiently for thousands, maybe millions of years inthis uncontrolled environment without sustaining any damage, until an-other molecule was formed beside it by chance under the same conditions.It would have to wait until millions of correct and essential proteins wereformed side by side in the same setting all "by chance". Those that formedearlier had to be patient enough to wait, without being destroyed despiteultraviolet rays and harsh mechanical effects, for the others to be formed


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right next to them. Then these proteins in adequate number, which alloriginated at the very same spot, would have to come together by makingmeaningful combinations and form the organelles of the cell. No extrane-ous material, harmful molecule, or useless protein chain may interferewith them. Then, even if these organelles were to come together in an ex-tremely harmonious and co-operative way within a plan and order, theymust take all the necessary enzymes beside themselves and become coveredwith a membrane, the inside of which must be filled with a special liquid toprepare the ideal environment for them. Now even if all these "highly un-likely" events actually occurred by chance, would this molecular heap cometo life?

The answer is No, because research has revealed that the mere combi-nation of all the materials essential for life is not enough for life to getstarted. Even if all the essential proteins for life were collected and put in atest tube, these efforts would not result with producing a living cell. All theexperiments conducted on this subject have proved to be unsuccessful. Allobservations and experiments indicate that life can only originate from life.The assertion that life evolved from non-living things, in other words, "abio-genesis", is a tale only existing in the dreams of the evolutionists and com-pletely at variance with the results of every experiment and observation.

In this respect, the first life on earth must also have originated fromother life. This is a reflection of Allah's epithet of "Hayy" (The Owner ofLife). Life can only start, continue, and end by His will. As for evolution,not only is it unable to explain how life began, it is also unable to explainhow the materials essential for life have formed and come together.

Chandra Wickramasinghe describes the reality he faced as a scien-tist who had been told throughout his life that life had emerged as a re-sult of chance coincidences:

From my earliest training as a scientist, I was very strongly brainwashed tobelieve that science cannot be consistent with any kind of deliberate creation.That notion has had to be painfully shed. At the moment, I can't find any ra-tional argument to knock down the view which argues for conversion toGod. We used to have an open mind; now we realize that the only logical an-swer to life is creation-and not accidental random shuffling.139

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The second law of thermodynamics, which is accepted as one of thebasic laws of physics, holds that under normal conditions all sys-tems left on their own tend to become disordered, dispersed, and

corrupted in direct relation to the amount of time that passes. Everything,whether living or not wears out, deteriorates, decays, disintegrates, and isdestroyed. This is the absolute end that all beings will face one way or an-other, and according to the law, the process cannot be avoided.

This is something that all of us have observed. For example if youtake a car to a desert and leave it there, you would hardly expect to find itin a better condition when you came back years later. On the contrary, youwould see that its tires had gone flat, its windows had been broken, itschassis had rusted, and its engine had stopped working. The same in-evitable process holds true for living things.

The second law of thermodynamics is the means by which this nat-ural process is defined with physical equations and calculations.

This famous law of physics is also known as "the law of entropy". Inphysics, entropy is the measure of the disorder of a system. A system's en-tropy increases as it moves from an ordered, organised, and planned statetowards a more disordered, dispersed, and unplanned one. The more dis-order there is in a system, the higher its entropy is. The law of entropyholds that the entire universe is unavoidably proceeding towards a moredisordered, unplanned, and disorganised state.

The truth of the second law of thermodynamics, or the law of en-tropy, has been experimentally and theoretically established. All foremostscientists agree that the law of entropy will remain the principle paradigmfor the foreseeable future. Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist of our age,described it as the "premier law of all of science". Sir Arthur Eddingtonalso referred to it as the "supreme metaphysical law of the entire uni-verse".140

Evolutionary theory ignores this fundamental law of physics. The

Ther mo dy nam icsFal si fies Ev o lu tion


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Ther mo dy nam ics Fal si fies Ev o lu tion 165

mechanism offered by evolution totally contradicts the second law. Thetheory of evolution says that disordered, dispersed, and lifeless atoms andmolecules spontaneously came together over time, in a particular order, toform extremely complex molecules such as proteins, DNA, and RNA,whereupon millions of different living species witheven more complex structures gradually emerged.According to the theory of evolution, this supposedprocess-which yields a more planned, more ordered,more complex and more organised structure at eachstage-was formed all by itself under natural condi-tions. The law of entropy makes it clear that this so-called natural process utterly contradicts the laws ofphysics.

Evolutionist scientists are also aware of thisfact. J.H. Rush states:

In the complex course of its evolution, life exhibits aremarkable contrast to the tendency expressed in theSecond Law of Thermodynamics.141

The evolutionist author Roger Lewin expressesthe thermodynamic impasse of evolution in an arti-cle in Science:

One problem biologists have faced is the apparentcontradiction by evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Systemsshould decay through time, giving less, not more, order.142

Another defender of the theory of evolution, George Stravropoulosstates the thermodynamic impossibility of the spontaneous formation oflife and the impossibility of explaining the existence of complex livingmechanisms by natural laws in the well-known evolutionist journal Amer-ican Scientist:

Yet, under ordinary conditions, no complex organic molecule can ever formspontaneously but will rather disintegrate, in agreement with the secondlaw. Indeed, the more complex it is, the more unstable it will be, and themore assured, sooner or later, its disintegration. Photosynthesis and all lifeprocesses, and even life itself, cannot yet be understood in terms of thermo-dynamics or any other exact science, despite the use of confused or deliber-ately confusing language.143

As we have seen, the second law of thermodynamics constitutes an

The law of


holds that


conditions al-

ways lead to dis-

order and loss of



theory, on the

other hand, is an

unscientific be-

lief that utterly

contradicts with

this law.

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insurmountable obstacle for the scenario of evolution, in terms of both sci-ence and logic. Unable to offer any scientific and consistent explanation toovercome this obstacle, evolutionists can only do so in their imagination.For instance, the well-known evolutionist Jeremy Rifkin notes his beliefthat evolution overwhelms this law of physics with a "magical power":

The Entropy Law says that evolution dissipates the overall available energyfor life on this planet. Our concept of evolution is the exact opposite. We be-lieve that evolution somehow magically creates greater overall value andorder on earth.144

These words well indicate that evolution is a dogmatic belief ratherthan a scientific thesis.

The Myth of the "Open System"Some proponents of evolution have recourse to an argument that the

second law of thermodynamics holds true only for "closed systems", andthat "open systems" are beyond the scope of this law.

An "open system" is a thermodynamic system in which energy andmatter flow in and out. Evolutionists hold that the world is an open sys-tem: that it is constantly exposed to an energy flow from the sun, that thelaw of entropy does not apply to the world as a whole, and that ordered,complex living beings can be generated from disordered, simple, andinanimate structures.

However, there is an obvious distortion here. The fact that a systemhas an energy inflow is not enough to make that system ordered. Specificmechanisms are needed to make the energy functional. For instance, a carneeds an engine, a transmission system, and related control mechanisms toconvert the energy in petrol to work. Without such an energy conversionsystem, the car will not be able to use the energy stored in petrol.

The same thing applies in the case of life as well. It is true that life de-rives its energy from the sun. However, solar energy can only be convertedinto chemical energy by the enormously complex energy conversion sys-tems in living things (such as photosynthesis in plants and the digestivesystems of humans and animals). No living thing can live without such en-ergy conversion systems. Without an energy conversion system, the sun isnothing but a source of destructive energy that burns, parches, or melts.

As may be seen, a thermodynamic system without an energy conver-sion mechanism of some sort is not advantageous for evolution, be it open


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or closed. No one asserts that such complex and conscious mechanismscould have existed in nature under the conditions of the primeval earth.Indeed, the real problem confronting evolutionists is the question of howcomplex energy-converting mechanisms such as photosynthesis in plants,which cannot be duplicated even with modern technology, could havecome into being on their own.

The influx of solar energy into the world would be unable to bringabout order on its own. Moreover, no matter how high the temperaturemay become, amino acids resist forming bonds in ordered sequences. En-ergy by itself is incapable of making amino acids form the much more com-plex molecules of proteins, or of making proteins from the much complexand organised structures of cell organelles. The real and essential source ofthis organisation at all levels is flawless creation.

The Myth of the "Self Organization of Matter"Quite aware that the second law of thermodynamics renders evolu-

tion impossible, some evolutionist scientists have made speculative at-tempts to square the circle between the two, in order to be able to claimthat evolution is possible. As usual, even those endeavours show that thetheory of evolution faces an inescapable impasse.

One person distinguished by his efforts to marry thermodynamics andevolution is the Belgian scientist Ilya Prigogine. Starting out from chaos the-ory, Prigogine proposed a number of hypotheses in which order developsfrom chaos (disorder). He argued that some open systems can portray a de-crease in entropy due to an influx of outer energy and the outcoming "order-ing" is a proof that "matter can organise itself." Since then, the concept of the"self-organization of matter" has been quite popular among evolutionists andmaterialists. They act like they have found a materialistic origin for the com-plexity of life and a materialistic solution for the problem of life's origin.

But a closer look reveals that this argument is totally abstract and infact just wishful thinking. Moreover, it includes a very naive deception.The deception lies in the deliberate confusing of two distinct concepts, "or-dered" and "organised." 145

We can make this clear with an example. Imagine a completely flatbeach on the seashore. When a strong wave hits the beach, mounds ofsand, large and small, form bumps on the surface of the sand.

This is a process of "ordering": The seashore is an open system and

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the energy flow (the wave) that enters it can form simple patterns in thesand, which look completely regular. From the thermodynamic point ofview, it can set up order here where before there was none. But we mustmake it clear that those same waves cannot build a castle on the beach. Ifwe see a castle there, we are in no doubt that someone has constructed it,because the castle is an "organised" system. In other words, it possesses aclear organization and information. Every part of it has been made by aconscious entity in a planned manner.

The difference between the sand and the castle is that the latter is anorganised complexity, whereas the former possesses only order, broughtabout by simple repetitions. The order formed from repetitions is as if anobject (in other words the flow of energy entering the system) had fallen onthe letter "a" on a typewriter keyboard, writing "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa" hun-dreds of times. But the string of "a"s in an order repeated in this mannercontains no information, and no complexity. In order to write a complexchain of letters actually containing information (in other words a meaning-ful sequence, paragraph or book), the presence of intelligence is essential.

The same thing applies when wind blows into a dusty room. When thewind blows in, the dust which had been lying in an even layer may gather inone corner of the room. This is also a more ordered situation than that whichexisted before, in the thermodynamic sense, but the individual specks of dustcannot form a portrait of someone on the floor in an organised manner.

This means that complex, organised systems can never come about asthe result of natural processes. Although simple examples of order canhappen from time to time, these cannot go beyond limits.

But evolutionists point to this self-ordering which emerges throughnatural processes as a most important proof of evolution, portray suchcases as examples of "self-organization". As a result of this confusion ofconcepts, they propose that living systems could develop their own accordfrom occurrences in nature and chemical reactions. The methods and stud-ies employed by Prigogine and his followers, which we considered above,are based on this deceptive logic.

The American scientists Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley andRoger L. Olsen, in their book titled The Mystery of Life's Origin, explain thisfact as follows:

...In each case random movements of molecules in a fluid are spontaneouslyreplaced by a highly ordered behavior. Prigogine, Eigen, and others have


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suggested that a similar sort of self-organization may be intrinsic in organicchemistry and can potentially account for the highly complex macromole-cules essential for living systems. But such analogies have scant relevance tothe origin-of-life question. A major reason is that they fail to distinguish be-tween order and complexity... Regularity or order cannot serve to store thelarge amount of information required by living systems. A highly irregular,but specified, structure is required rather than an ordered structure. This is aserious flaw in the analogy offered. There is no apparent connection betweenthe kind of spontaneous ordering that occurs from energy flow through suchsystems and the work required to build aperiodic information-intensivemacromolecules like DNA and protein.146

In fact even Prigogine himself has accepted that the theories he hasproduced for the molecular level do not apply to living systems-for in-stance, a living cell:

The problem of biological order involves the transition from the molecularactivity to the supermolecular order of the cell. This problem is far frombeing solved.147

So why do evolutionists continue to believe in scenarios such as the"self organization of matter", which have no scientific foundation? Whyare they so determined to reject the intelligence and planning that soclearly can be seen in living systems? The answer is that they have a dog-matic faith in materialism and they believe that matter has some mysteri-ous power to create life. A professor of chemistry from New YorkUniversity and DNA expert, Robert Shapiro, explains this belief of evolu-tionists about the "self-organization of matter" and the materialist dogmalying at its heart as follows:

Another evolutionary principle is therefore needed to take us across the gapfrom mixtures of simple natural chemicals to the first effective replicator. Thisprinciple has not yet been described in detail or demonstrated, but it is antici-pated, and given names such as chemical evolution and self-organization ofmatter. The existence of the principle is taken for granted in the philosophy ofdialectical materialism, as applied to the origin of life by Alexander Oparin.148

All this situation clearly demonstrates that evolution is a dogma that isagainst emprical science and the origin of living beings can only be ex-plained by the intervention of a supernatural power. That supernaturalpower is the creation of Allah, who created the entire universe from nothing.Science has proven that evolution is still impossible as far as thermodynam-ics is concerned and the existence of life has no explanation but Creation.

Ther mo dy nam ics Fal si fies Ev o lu tion 169

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Order Cannot Be

Accounted For

By Coincidence


I n the previous chapter, we have examined how impossible the acci-dental formation of life is. Let us again ignore these impossibilities forjust a moment. Let us suppose that millions of years ago a cell was

formed which had acquired everything necessary for life, and that it duly"came to life". The theory of evolution again collapses at this point. Foreven if this cell had existed for a while, it would eventually have died andafter its death, nothing would have remained, and everything would havereverted to where it had started. This is because this first living cell, lack-ing any genetic information, would not have been able to reproduce andstart a new generation. Life would have ended with its death.

The genetic system does not only consist of DNA. The followingthings must also exist in the same environment: enzymes to read the codeon the DNA, messenger RNA to be produced after reading these codes, aribosome to which messenger RNA will attach according to this code,transfer RNA to transfer the amino acids to the ribosome for use in pro-duction, and extremely complex enzymes to carry out numerous interme-diary processes. Such an environment cannot exist anywhere apart fromaa totally isolated and completely controlled environment such as the cell,where all the essential raw materials and energy resources exist.

As a result, organic matter can self-reproduce only if it exists as a fullydeveloped cell with all its organelles and in an appropriate environmentwhere it can survive, exchange materials, and get energy from its sur-roundings. This means that the first cell on earth was formed "all of a sud-den" together with its amazingly complex structure.

So, if a complex structure came into existence all of a sudden, whatdoes this mean?

Let us ask this question with an example. Let us liken the cell to a high-tech car in terms of its complexity. (In fact, the cell is a much more complexand developed system than a car with its engine and all its technical equip-ment.) Now let us ask the following question: What would you think if you

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Order Cannot Be Accounted For By Coincidence 171

went out hiking in the depths of a thick forest and ran across a brand-newcar among the trees? Would you imagine that various elements in the foresthad come together by chance over millions of years and produced such avehicle? All the parts in the car are made of products such as iron, copper,and rubber-the raw ingredients for which are all found on the earth-butwould this fact lead you to think that these materials had synthesised "bychance" and then come together and manufactured such a car?

There is no doubt that anyone with a sound mind would realise thatthe car was the product of an intelligent design-in other words, a factory-and wonder what it was doing there in the middle of the forest. The sud-den emergence of a complex structure in a complete form, quite out of theblue, shows that this is the work of an intelligent agent. An extraordinarilycomplex system like the cell is no doubt created by a superior will and wis-dom. In other words, it came into existence as a Creation of Allah.

Believing that pure chance can produce perfect designs goes well be-yond the bounds of reason. Yet, every "explanation put forward by the the-ory of evolution regarding the origin of life is like that. One outspokenauthority on this issue is the famous French zoologist Pierre-Paul Grassé,the former president of the French Academy of Sciences. Grassé is a mate-rialist, yet he acknowledges that Darwinist theory is unable to explain lifeand makes a point about the logic of "coincidence", which is the backboneof Darwinism:

The opportune appearance of mutations permitting animals and plants tomeet their needs seems hard to believe. Yet the Darwinian theory is evenmore demanding: A single plant, a single animal would require thousandsand thousands of lucky, appropriate events. Thus, miracles would becomethe rule: events with an infinitesimal probability could not fail to occur…There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge in it.149

Grasse summarises what the concept of "coincidence" means for evo-lutionists: "...Chance becomes a sort of providence, which, under thecover of atheism, is not named but which is secretly worshipped."150

The logical failure of evolutionists is an outcome of their enshriningthe concept of coincidence. In the Qur'an, Allah reveals that those whoworship beings other than Allah are devoid of understanding;

They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they seenot, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle - nay more mis-guided: for they are heedless (of warning). (Surat al-Araf : 179)

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Darwinian Formula!Besides all the technical evidence we have dealt with so far, let us

now for once, examine what kind of a superstition the evolutionists havewith an example so simple as to be understood even by children:

Evolutionary theory asserts that life is formed by chance. Accordingto this claim, lifeless and unconscious atoms came together to form the celland then they somehow formed other living things, including man. Let usthink about that. When we bring together the elements that are the build-ing-blocks of life such as carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium,only a heap is formed. No matter what treatments it undergoes, thisatomic heap cannot form even a single living being. If you like, let us for-mulate an "experiment" on this subject and let us examine on the behalf ofevolutionists what they really claim without pronouncing loudly underthe name "Darwinian formula":

Let evolutionists put plenty of materials present in the composition ofliving beings such as phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, iron, andmagnesium into big barrels. Moreover, let them add in these barrels anymaterial that does not exist under normal conditions, but they think asnecessary. Let them add in this mixture as many amino acids-which haveno possibility of forming under natural conditions-and as many proteins-asingle one of which has a formation probability of 10-950-as they like. Letthem expose these mixtures to as much heat and moisture as they like. Letthem stir these with whatever technologically developed device they like.Let them put the foremost scientists beside these barrels. Let these expertswait in turn beside these barrels for billions, and even trillions of years. Letthem be free to use all kinds of conditions they believe to be necessary fora living thing’s formation. No matter what they do, they cannot producefrom these barrels a living being, say a professor that examines his cellstructure under the electron microscope. They cannot produce giraffes,lions, bees, canaries, horses, dolphins, roses, orchids, lilies, carnations, ba-nanas, oranges, apples, dates, tomatoes, melons, watermelons, figs, olives,grapes, peaches, peafowls, pheasants, multicoloured butterflies, or mil-lions of other living beings such as these. Indeed, they could not obtaineven a single cell of any one of them.

Briefly, unconscious atoms cannot form the cell by coming to-gether. They cannot take a new decision and divide this cell into two, then

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Order Cannot Be Accounted For By Coincidence 173

take other decisions and form the professors who first invent the electronmicroscope and then examine their own cell structure under that micro-scope. Matter comes to life only with Allah’s superior Creation.

Evolutionary theory, which claims the opposite, is a total fallacy com-pletely contrary to reason. Thinking even a little bit on the claims of tevo-lutionists discloses this reality, just as in the above example.

Even if evolutionists placed allthe substances necessary forlife in a barrel and applied to

them whatever processes theychose, involving all the scien-

tists in the world in this experi-ment and waiting for billions of

years, they would never be ableto form a single living thing in-

side that barrel—nor even a sin-gle cell of a living thing.

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Technology In The Eye and The EarAnother subject that remains unanswered by evolutionary theory is

the excellent quality of perception in the eye and the ear. Before passing on to the subject of the eye, let us briefly answer the

question of "how we see". Light rays coming from an object fall oppositelyon the retina of the eye. Here, these light rays are transmitted into electricsignals by cells and they reach a tiny spot at the back of the brain called thecentre of vision. These electric signals are perceived in this centre of thebrain as an image after a series of processes. With this technical back-ground, let us do some thinking.

The brain is insulated from light. That means that the inside of thebrain is solid dark, and light does not reach the location where the brain issituated. The place called the centre of vision is a solid dark place where nolight ever reaches; it may even be the darkest place you have ever known.However, you observe a luminous, bright world in this pitch darkness.

The image formed in the eye is so sharp and distinct that even thetechnology of the 20th century has not been able to attain it. For instance,look at the book you read, your hands with which you hold it, then liftyour head and look around you. Have you ever seen such a sharp and dis-tinct image as this one at any other place? Even the most developed televi-sion screen produced by the greatest television producer in the worldcannot provide such a sharp image for you. This is a three-dimensional,coloured, and extremely sharp image. For more than 100 years, thousandsof engineers have been trying to achieve this sharpness. Factories, hugepremises were established, much research has been done, plans and de-signs have been made for this purpose. Again, look at a TV screen and thebook you hold in your hands. You will see that there is a big difference insharpness and distinction. Moreover, the TV screen shows you a two-di-mensional image, whereas with your eyes, you watch a three-dimensionalperspective having depth. When you look carefully, you will see that thereis a blurring in the television, is there any blurring in your vision? Surelythere is not.

For many years, ten of thousands of engineers have tried to make athree-dimensional TV, and reach the vision quality of the eye. Although,they have made a three-dimensional television system, it is not possible towatch it without putting on glasses; moreover, it is only an artificial three-dimension. The background is more blurred, the foreground appears like a

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When we comparethe eye and the earwith cameras andsound recorders, wesee that the eye andthe ear are far morecomplex, functional,and perfect thanthose technologicalproducts.

Technology in the Eye and Ear

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paper setting. Never has it been possible to produce a sharp and distinctvision like that of the eye. In both the camera and the television, there is aloss of image quality.

Evolutionists claim that the mechanism producing this sharp and dis-tinct image has been formed by chance. Now, if somebody told you thatthe television in your room was formed as a result of chance, that all itsatoms just happened to come together and make up this device that pro-duces an image, what would you think? How can atoms do what thou-sands of people cannot?

For nearly a century, tens of thousands of engineers have been re-searching and striving in high-tech laboratories and great industrial com-plexes using the most advanced technological devices, and they have beenable to do no more than this.

If a device producing a more primitive image than the eye could nothave been formed by chance, then it is very evident that the eye and theimage seen by the eye could not have been formed by chance. It requires amuch more detailed and miraculous plan and Creation than the one in theTV. The plan and Creation of the image as distinct and sharp as this onebelongs to Allah, Who has power over all things.

The same situation applies to the ear. The outer ear picks up the avail-able sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middle ear; the middleear transmits the sound vibrations by intensifying them; the inner earsends these vibrations to the brain by translating them into electric signals.Just as with the eye, the act of hearing finalises in the centre of hearing inthe brain.

The situation in the eye is also true for the ear. That is, the brain is in-sulated from sound just like it is from light: it does not let any sound in.Therefore, no matter how noisy is the outside, the inside of the brain iscompletely silent. Nevertheless, the sharpest sounds are perceived in thebrain. In your brain, which is insulated from sound, you listen to the sym-phonies of an orchestra, and hear all the noises in a crowded place. How-ever, if the sound level in your brain was measured by a precise device atthat moment, it would be seen that a complete silence is prevailing there.

Let us again compare the high quality and superior technology pre-sent in the ear and the brain with the technology produced by human be-ings. As is the case with imagery, decades of effort have been spent in


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trying to generate and reproduce sound that is faithful to the original. Theresults of these efforts are sound recorders, high-fidelity systems, and sys-tems for sensing sound. Despite all this technology and the thousands ofengineers and experts who have been working in this endeavour, nosound has yet been obtained that has the same sharpness and clarity as thesound perceived by the ear. Think of the highest-quality HI-FI systemsproduced by the biggest company in the music industry. Even in these de-vices, when sound is recorded some of it is lost; or when you turn on theHI-FI you always hear a hissing sound before the music starts. However,the sounds that are the products of the technology of the human body areextremely sharp and clear. A human ear never perceives a sound accom-panied by a hissing sound or with atmospherics as a HI-FI does; it per-ceives the sound exactly as it is, sharp and clear. This is the way it has beensince the Creation of man.

Briefly, the technology in our body is far superior to the technologymankind has produced using its accumulated information, experience,

Order Cannot Be Accounted For By Coincidence 177

For decades, thousands of engineers have been trying to create a high-quality three-dimensional imaging system, using special systems and glasses. Despite the extra-ordinary progress made in the technological arena, they have never been able to forma three-dimensional image as clear as what the eye can perceive.

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and opportunities. No one would say that a HI-FI or a camera came intobeing as a result of chance. So how can it be claimed that the technologiesthat exist in the human body, which are superior even to these, could havecome into being as a result of a chain of coincidences called evolution?

It is evident that the eye, the ear, and indeed all the other parts of thehuman body are products of a very superior Creation. These are crystal-clear indications of Allah’s unique and unmatched Creation, of His eternalknowledge and might.

The reason we specifically mention the senses of seeing and hearinghere is the inability of evolutionists to understand evidence of Creation soclear as this. If, one day, you ask an evolutionist to explain to you how thisexcellent structure and technology became possible in the eye and the earas a result of chance, you will see that he will not be able to give you anyreasonable or logical reply. Even Darwin, in his letter to Asa Gray on April3rd 1860, wrote that "the thought of the eye made him cold all over" andhe confessed the desperation of the evolutionists in the face of the excellentCreation of living things.151

The Theory of Evolution is the Most Potent Spell in the WorldThroughout this book it has been explained that the theory of evolu-

tion lacks any scientific evidence and that on the contrary, scientific proofsfrom such branches of science such as paleontology, microbiology andanatomy reveal it to be a bankrupt theory. It has been stressed that evolu-tion is incompatible with scientific discoveries, reason and logic.

It needs to be made clear that anyone free of prejudice and the influ-ence of any particular ideology, who uses only his reason and logic, willclearly understand that belief in the theory of evolution, which brings tomind the superstitions of societies with no knowledge of science or civi-lization, is quite impossible.

As has been explained above, those who believe in the theory of evo-lution think that a few atoms and molecules thrown into a huge vat couldproduce thinking, reasoning professors, university students, scientistssuch as Einstein and Galileo, artists such as Humphrey Bogart, Frank Sina-tra and Pavarotti, as well as antelopes, lemon trees and carnations. More-over, the scientists and professors who believe in this nonsense areeducated people. That is why it is quite justifiable to speak of the theory ofevolution as "the most potent spell in history." Never before has any other


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belief or idea so taken away peoples' powers of reason, refused to allowthem to think intelligently and logically and hidden the truth from them asif they had been blindfolded. This is an even worse and unbelievableblindness than, totem worship in some parts of Africa, the people of Sabaworshipping the Sun, the tribe of the Prophet Abraham worshipping idolsthey had made with their own hands or the people of the Prophet Moses(pbuh) worshipping the Golden Calf.

In fact, this situation is a lack of reason Allah points out in the Qur'an.He reveals in many verses that some peoples' minds will be closed andthat they will be powerless to see the truth. Some of these verses are as fol-lows:

As for those who disbelieve, it makes no difference to them whether youwarn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. Allah has sealed uptheir hearts and hearing and over their eyes is a blindfold. They will havea terrible punishment. (Surat al-Baqara: 6-7)

…They have hearts they do not understand with. They have eyes they donot see with. They have ears they do not hear with. Such people are likecattle. No, they are even further astray! They are the unaware. (Surat al-A'raf: 179)

Order Cannot Be Accounted For By Coincidence 179

In the same way that the beliefs of people who worshipped crocodiles now seem oddand unbelievable, so the beliefs of Darwinists are just as incredible. Darwinists regardchance and lifeless, consciousless atoms as a creative force, and are as devoted tothat belief as if to a religion.

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Even if We opened up to them a door into heaven, and they spent the dayascending through it, they would only say, "Our eyesight is befuddled! Orrather we have been put under a spell!" (Surat al-Hijr: 14-15)

Words cannot express just how astonishing it is that this spell shouldhold such a wide community in thrall, keep people from the truth, and notbe broken for 150 years. It is understandable that one or a few peoplemight believe in impossible scenarios and claims full of stupidity and il-logicality. However, "magic" is the only possible explanation for peoplefrom all over the world believing that unconscious and lifeless atoms sud-denly decided to come together and form a universe that functions with aflawless system of organization, discipline, reason and consciousness, theplanet Earth with all its features so perfectly suited to life, and livingthings full of countless complex systems.

In fact, Allah reveals in the Qur'an in the incident of the ProphetMoses (pbuh) and Pharaoh that some people who support atheisticphilosophies actually influence others by magic. When Pharaoh was toldabout the true religion, he told the Prophet Moses (pbuh) to meet with hisown magicians. When the Prophet Moses (pbuh) did so, he told them todemonstrate their abilities first. The verses continue:

He said, "You throw." And when they threw, they cast a spell on the peo-ple's eyes and caused them to feel great fear of them. They produced an ex-tremely powerful magic. (Surat al-A'raf: 116)

As we have seen, Pharaoh's magicians were able to deceive everyone,apart from the Prophet Moses (pbuh) and those who believed in him.However, the evidence put forward by the Prophet Moses (pbuh) brokethat spell, or "swallowed up what they had forged."

We revealed to Moses, "Throw down your staff." And it immediately swal-lowed up what they had forged. So the Truth took place and what they didwas shown to be false. (Surat al-A'raf: 117-119)

As we can see from that verse, when it was realised that what thesepeople who had first cast a spell over others had done was just an illusion,they lost all credibility. In the present day too, unless those who under theinfluence of a similar spell believe in these ridiculous claims under theirscientific disguise and spend their lives defending them abandon them,they too will be humiliated when the full truth emerges and the spell isbroken. In fact, Malcolm Muggeridge, who was an atheist philosopher andsupporter of evolution for some 60 years, but who subsequently realized


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the truth, admitted he was worried by just that prospect:I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially the extent towhich it's been applied, will be one of the great jokes in the history books inthe future. Posterity will marvel that so very flimsy and dubious an hypothe-sis could be accepted with the incredible credulity that it has.152

That future is not far off: On the contrary, people will soon see that"chance" is not a god, and will look back on the theory of evolution as theworst deceit and the most terrible spell in the world. That spell is alreadyrapidly beginning to be lifted from the shoulders of people all over theworld. Many people who see the true face of the theory of evolution arewondering with amazement how it was that they were ever taken in by it.

Order Cannot Be Accounted For By Coincidence 181

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I n previous chapters, we examined the invalidity of the theory of evolu-tion in terms of the bodies of evidence found in fossils and from thestandpoint of molecular biology. In this chapter, we will address a

number of biological phenomena and concepts presented as theoretical evi-dence by evolutionists. These topics are particularly important for theyshow that there is no scientific finding that supports evolution and insteadreveal the extent of the distortion and hoodwink employed by evolutionists.

Variations and Species Variation, a term used in genetics, refers to a genetic event that causes

the individuals or groups of a certain type or species to possess differentcharacteristics from one another. For example, all the people on earth carrybasically the same genetic information, yet some have slanted eyes, somehave red hair, some have long noses, and others are short of stature, all de-pending on the extent of the variation potential of this genetic information.

Evolutionists predicate the variations within a species as evidence tothe theory. However, variation does not constitute evidence for evolu-tion because variations are but the outcomes of different combinationsof already existing genetic information and they do not add any newcharacteristic to the genetic information. The important thing for the the-ory of evolution, however, is the question of how brand-new informationto make a brand-new species could come about.

Variation always takes place within the limits of genetic information.In the science of genetics, this limit is called the "gene pool". All of the char-acteristics present in the gene pool of a species may come to light in vari-ous ways due to variation. For example, as a result of variation, varietiesthat have relatively longer tails or shorter legs may appear in a certain

Why Ev o lu tion ists’ Claims

Are Invalid


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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 183

species of reptile, since information for both long-legged and short-leggedforms may exist in the gene pool that species. However, variations do nottransform reptiles into birds by adding wings or feathers to them, or bychanging their metabolism. Such a change requires an increase in the ge-netic information of the living thing, which is certainly not possiblethrough variations.

Darwin was not aware of this fact when he formulated his theory. Hethought that there was no limit to variations. In an article he wrote in 1844

Variations within Species Do Not Imply Evolution


In The Origin of Species, Darwin confused two separate concepts: variationswithin a species and the emergence of an entirely new one. Darwin observed thevariety within the various breeds of dogs, for example, and imagined that some ofthese variations would one day turn into a different species. Even today evolu-tionists persist in seeking to portray variations within species as “evolution”. However, it is a scientific fact that variations within a species are not evolution.For instance, no matter how many breeds of dog there are, these will always re-main a single species. No transition from one distinct species to another will evertake place.

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he stated: "That a limit to variation does exist in nature is assumed bymost authors, though I am unable to discover a single fact on which thisbelief is grounded".153 In The Origin of Species he cited different examplesof variations as the most important evidence for his theory.

For instance, according to Darwin, animal breeders who mated differ-ent varieties of cattle in order to bring about new varieties that producedmore milk, were ultimately going to transform them into a differentspecies. Darwin's notion of "unlimited variation" is best seen in the follow-ing sentence from The Origin of Species:

I can see no difficulty in a race of bears being rendered, by natural selection,more and more aquatic in their habits, with larger and larger mouths, till acreature was produced as monstrous as a whale.154

The reason Darwin cited such a far-fetched example was the primi-tive understanding of science in his day. Since then, in the 20th century,science has posited the principle of "genetic stability" (genetic homeosta-sis), based on the results of experiments conducted on living things. Thisprinciple holds that, since all mating attempts carried out to produce newvariations have been inconclusive, there are strict barriers among differ-ent species of living things. This meant that it was absolutely impossiblefor animal breeders to convert cattle into a different species by mating dif-

THE MYTH THAT WHALES EVOLVED FROM BEARS In The Origin of Species, Darwin asserted that whales had evolved from bears that tried toswim! Darwin mistakenly supposed that the possibilities of variation within a specieswere unlimited. 20th century science has shown this evolutionary scenario to be imagi-nary.

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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 185

ferent variations of them, as Darwin had postulated.

Norman Macbeth, who disproved Darwinism in his book Darwin Re-

tried, states:

The heart of the problem is whether living things do indeed vary to an unlim-ited extent... The species look stable. We have all heard of disappointed breed-ers who carried their work to a certain point only to see the animals or plantsrevert to where they had started. Despite strenuous efforts for two or three cen-turies, it has never been possible to produce a blue rose or a black tulip.155

Luther Burbank, considered the most competent breeder of all time,expressed this fact when he said, "there are limits to the development pos-sible, and these limits follow a law." 156 The Danish scientist W. L. Jo-hannsen sums the matter up this way:

The variations upon which Darwin and Wallace had placed their emphasiscannot be selectively pushed beyond a certain point, that such a variabilitydoes not contain the secret of 'indefinite departure.157

In the same way, the different finches that Darwin saw on the Galapagos Is-lands are another example of variation that is no evidence for "evolution".Recent observations have revealed that the finches did not undergo an un-limited variation as Darwin's theory presupposed. Moreover, most of the dif-ferent types of finches which Darwin thought represented 14 distinct speciesactually mated with one another, which means that they were variations thatbelonged to the same species. Scientific observation shows that the finchbeaks, which have been mythicized in almost all evolutionist sources, are infact an example of "variation"; therefore, they do not constitute evidence forthe theory of evolution. For example, Peter and Rosemary Grant, who spentyears observing the finch varieties in the Galapagos Islands looking for evi-dence for Darwinistic evolution, were forced to conclude that no "evolution"that leads to the emergence of new traits ever takes place there.158

Antibiotic Resistance and DDT Immunityare not Evidence for EvolutionOne of the biological concepts that evolutionists try to present as evi-

dence for their theory is the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Many evo-

lutionist sources show antibiotic resistance as "an example of the

development of living things by advantageous mutations". A similar claim

is also made for the insects which build immunity to insecticides such as


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However, evolutionists are mistaken on this subject too. Antibiotics are "killer molecules" that are produced by micro-organ-

isms to fight other micro-organisms. The first antibiotic was penicillin, dis-covered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Fleming realized that mouldproduced a molecule that killed the Staphylococcus bacterium, and this dis-covery marked a turning point in the world of medicine. Antibiotics de-rived from micro-organisms were used against bacteria and the resultswere successful.

Soon, something new was discovered. Bacteria build immunity to an-tibiotics over time. The mechanism works like this: A large proportion ofthe bacteria that are subjected to antibiotics die, but some others, which arenot affected by that antibiotic, replicate rapidly and soon make up thewhole population. Thus, the entire population becomes immune to antibi-otics.

Evolutionists try to present this as "the evolution of bacteria by adapt-ing to conditions".

The truth, however, is very different from this superficial interpreta-tion. One of the scientists who has done the most detailed research intothis subject is the Israeli biophysicist Lee Spetner, who is also known forhis book Not by Chance published in 1997. Spetner maintains that the im-munity of bacteria comes about by two different mechanisms, but neitherof them constitutes evidence for the theory of evolution. These two mech-anisms are:

1) The transfer of resistance genes already extant in bacteria. 2) The building of resistance as a result of losing genetic data because

of mutation. Professor Spetner explains the first mechanism in an article published

in 2001:

Some microorganisms are endowed with genes that grant resistance to theseantibiotics. This resistance can take the form of degrading the antibiotic mol-ecule or of ejecting it from the cell... The organisms having these genes cantransfer them to other bacteria making them resistant as well. Although theresistance mechanisms are specific to a particular antibiotic, most pathogenicbacteria have... succeeded in accumulating several sets of genes grantingthem resistance to a variety of antibiotics.159

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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 187

Spetner then goes on to say that this is not "evidence for evolution":

The acquisition of antibiotic resistance in this manner... is not the kind thatcan serve as a prototype for the mutations needed to account for Evolution.The genetic changes that could illustrate the theory must not only add infor-mation to the bacterium's genome, they must add new information to thebiocosm. The horizontal transfer of genes only spreads around genes that arealready in some species.160

So, we cannot talk of any evolution here, because no new genetic in-formation is produced: genetic information that already exists is simplytransferred between bacteria.

The second type of immunity, which comes about as a result of muta-tion, is not an example of evolution either. Spetner writes:

...A microorganism can sometimes acquire resistance to an antibiotic througha random substitution of a single nucleotide... Streptomycin, which was dis-covered by Selman Waksman and Albert Schatz and first reported in 1944, isan antibiotic against which bacteria can acquire resistance in this way. But al-though the mutation they undergo in the process is beneficial to the microor-ganism in the presence of streptomycin, it cannot serve as a prototype for thekind of mutations needed by NDT [Neo Darwinian Theory]. The type of mu-

Evolutionists portray bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics as evidence ofevolution—but in a deceptive way.

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tation that grants resistance to streptomycin is manifest in the ribosome anddegrades its molecular match with the antibiotic molecule. This change in thesurface of the microorganism's ribosome prevents the streptomycin moleculefrom attaching and carrying out its antibiotic function. It turns out that thisdegradation is a loss of specificity and therefore a loss of information. Themain point is that (Evolution) cannot be achieved by mutations of this sort,no matter how many of them there are. Evolution cannot be built by accu-mulating mutations that only degrade specificity.161

To sum up, a mutation impinging on a bacterium's ribosome makesthat bacterium resistant to streptomycin. The reason for this is the "decom-position" of the ribosome by mutation. That is, no new genetic information isadded to the bacterium. On the contrary, the structure of the ribosome is de-composed, that is to say, the bacterium becomes "disabled". (Also, it hasbeen discovered that the ribosome of the mutated bacterium is less func-tional than that of normal bacterium). Since this "disability" prevents the an-tibiotic from attaching onto the ribosome, "antibiotic resistance" develops.

Finally, there is no example of mutation that "develops the genetic in-formation".

The same situation holds true for the immunity that insects developto DDT and similar insecticides. In most of these instances, immunitygenes that already exist are used. The evo-lutionist biologist Francisco Ayala admitsthis fact, saying, "The genetic variants re-quired for resistance to the most diversekinds of pesticides were apparently pre-sent in every one of the populations ex-posed to these man-made compounds."162

Some other examples explained by muta-tion, just as with the ribosome mutationmentioned above, are phenomena thatcause "genetic information deficit" in in-sects.

In this case, it cannot be claimed thatthe immunity mechanisms in bacteria andinsects constitute evidence for the theory ofevolution. That is because the theory of

All instances of vestigial organshave been disproved in time. Forexample the semicircular fold inthe eye, which was mentioned inthe Origins as a vestigial struc-ture, has been shown to be fullyfunctional in our time, though itsfunction was unknown in Dar-win's time. This organ lubricatesthe eyeball.

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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 189

evolution is based on the assertion that living things develop through mu-tations. However, Spetner explains that neither antibiotic immunity norany other biological phenomena indicate such an example of mutation:

The mutations needed for macroevolution have never been observed. Norandom mutations that could represent the mutations required by Neo-Dar-winian Theory that have been examined on the molecular level have addedany information. The question I address is: Are the mutations that have beenobserved the kind the theory needs for support? The answer turns out to beNO!163

The Fallacy of Vestigial OrgansFor a long time, the concept of "vestigial organs" appeared frequently

in evolutionist literature as "evidence" of evolution. Eventually, it wassilently put to rest when this was proved to be invalid. But some evolu-tionists still believe in it, and from time to time someone will try to ad-vance "vestigial organs" as important evidence of evolution.

The notion of "vestigial organs" was first put forward a century ago.As evolutionists would have it, there existed in the bodies of some crea-tures a number of non-functional organs. These had been inherited fromprogenitors and had gradually become vestigial from lack of use.

The whole assumption is quite unscientific, and is based entirely oninsufficient knowledge. These "non-functional organs" were in fact organswhose "functions had not yet been discovered". The best indication of thiswas the gradual yet substantial decrease in evolutionists' long list of vesti-gial organs. S.R. Scadding, an evolutionist himself, concurred with this factin his article "Can vestigial organs constitute evidence for evolution?" pub-lished in the journal Evolutionary Theory:

Since it is not possible to unambiguously identify useless structures, andsince the structure of the argument used is not scientifically valid, I concludethat "vestigial organs" provide no special evidence for the theory of evolu-tion.164

The list of vestigial organs that was made by the German AnatomistR. Wiedersheim in 1895 included approximately 100 organs, including theappendix and coccyx. As science progressed, it was discovered that all ofthe organs in Wiedersheim's list in fact had very important functions. Forinstance, it was discovered that the appendix, which was supposed to be a"vestigial organ", was in fact a lymphoid organ that fought against infec-

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tions in the body. This fact was made clear in 1997: "Other bodily organsand tissues-the thymus, liver, spleen, appendix, bone marrow, and smallcollections of lymphatic tissue such as the tonsils in the throat and Peyer'spatch in the small intestine-are also part of the lymphatic system. They toohelp the body fight infection."165

It was also discovered that the tonsils, which were included in thesame list of vestigial organs, had a significant role in protecting the throatagainst infections, particularly until adolescence. It was found that the coc-cyx at the lower end of the vertebral column supports the bones aroundthe pelvis and is the convergence point of some small muscles and for thisreason, it would not be possible to sit comfortably without a coccyx. In theyears that followed, it was realised that the thymus triggered the immunesystem in the human body by activating the T cells, that the pineal glandwas in charge of the secretion of some important hormones, that the thy-roid gland was effective in providing steady growth in babies and chil-dren, and that the pituitary gland controlled the correct functioning ofmany hormone glands. All of these were once conside-red to be "vestigialorgans". Finally, the semi-lunar fold in the eye, which was referred to as avestigial organ by Darwin, has been found in fact to be in charge of cleans-ing and lubricating the eyeball.

There was a very important logical error in the evolutionist claim re-garding vestigial organs. As we have just seen, this claim was that the ves-tigial organs in living things were inherited from their ancestors.However, some of the alleged "vestigial" organs are not found in thespecies alleged to be the ancestors of human beings! For example, the ap-pendix does not exist in some ape species that are said to be ancestors ofman. The famous biologist H. Enoch, who challenged the theory of vesti-gial organs, expressed this logical error as follows:

Apes possess an appendix, whereas their less immediate relatives, the lowerapes, do not; but it appears again among the still lower mammals such asthe opossum. How can the evolutionists account for this?166

Simply put, the scenario of vestigial organs put forward by evolution-ists contains a number of serious logical flaws, and has in any case beenproven to be scientifically untrue. There exists not one inherited vestigialorgan in the human body, since human beings did not evolve from othercreatures as a result of chance, but were created in their current, complete,and perfect form.

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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 191

The Myth of hom*ologyStructural similarities between different species are called "hom*ol-

ogy" in biology. Evolutionists try to present those similarities as evidencefor evolution.

Darwin thought that creatures with similar (hom*ologous) organs hadan evolutionary relationship with each other, and that these organs musthave been inherited from a common ancestor. According to his assump-tion, both pigeons and eagles had wings; therefore, pigeons, eagles, and in-deed all other birds with wings were supposed to have evolved from acommon ancestor.

hom*ology is a deceptive argument, advanced on the basis of no otherevidence than an apparent physical resemblance. This argument has neveronce been verified by a single concrete discovery in all the years since Dar-win's day. Nowhere in the world has anyone come up with a fossil remainof the imaginary common ancestor of creatures with hom*ologous struc-tures. Furthermore, the following issues make it clear that hom*ology pro-vides no evidence that evolution ever occurred.

1. One finds hom*ologous organs in creatures belonging to completelydifferent phyla, among which evolutionists have not been able to establishany sort of evolutionary relationship;

2. The genetic codes of some creatures that have hom*ologous organsare completely different from one another.

3. The embryological development of hom*ologous organs in differentcreatures is completely different.

Let us now examine each of these points one by one.

Similar Organs in Entirely Different Living SpeciesThere are a number of hom*ologous organs shared by different groups

among which evolutionists cannot establish any kind of evolutionary rela-tionship. Wings are one example. In addition to birds, we find wings onbats, which are mammals, and on insects and even on some dinosaurs,which are extinct reptiles. Not even evolutionists posit an evolutionary re-lationship or kinship among those four different groups of animals.

Another striking example is the amazing resemblance and the struc-tural similarity observed in the eyes of different creatures. For example, theoctopus and man are two extremely different species, between which no

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evolutionary relationship is likely even to be proposed, yet the eyes of bothare very much alike in terms of their structure and function. Not even evo-lutionists try to account for the similarity of the eyes of the octopus and manby positing a common ancestor. These and numerous other examples showthat the evolutionist claim based on resemblances is completely unscientific.

In fact, hom*ologous organs should be a great embarrassment for evo-lutionists. The famous evolutionist Frank Salisbury's confessions revealedin his statements on how extremely different creatures came to have verysimilar eyes underscores the impasse of hom*ology:

Even something as complex as the eye has appeared several times; for ex-ample, in the squid, the vertebrates, and the arthropods. It's bad enough ac-counting for the origin of such things once, but the thought of producingthem several times according to the modern synthetic theory makes myhead swim.167

There are many creatures which, despite their very similar physicalmake-up, do not permit any claims of evolutionary relationship. Two large

Eagles, bats and insects all have wings.Yet just because they possess similar or-gans does not prove that they evolvedfrom any common ancestor.

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Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 193

mammal categories, placentals and marsupials, are an example. Evolu-tionists consider this distinction to have come about when mammals firstappeared, and that each group lived its own evolutionary history totallyindependent of the other. But it is interesting that there are "pairs" in pla-centals and marsupials which are nearly the same. The American biolo-gists Dean Kenyon and Percival Davis make the following comment:

According to Darwinian theory, the pattern for wolves, cats, squirrels,ground hogs, anteaters, moles, and mice each evolved twice: once in placen-tal mammals and again, totally independently, in marsupials. This amountsto the astonishing claim that a random, undirected process of mutation andnatural selection somehow hit upon identical features several times inwidely separated organisms.168

Extraordinary resemblances and similar organs like these, which evo-lutionist biologists cannot accept as examples of "hom*ology," show thatthere is no evidence for the thesis of evolution from a common ancestor.What, in that case, could be the scientific explanation of the similar struc-tures in living things? The answer to that question was given before Dar-win's theory of evolution came to dominate the world of science. Scientistslike Carl Linnaeus, who first systematized living things according to theirsimilar structures, and Richard Owen regarded these structures as exam-ples of “common” creation. In other words, similar organs (or, nowadays,similar genes) are held to be so because they were created to serve a par-ticular purpose, not because they evolved by chance from a common an-cestor.

In terms of structure, the eyes of humans and octopuses are very much alike. How-ever, the fact that the two species have similar organs doesn’t imply that they evolvedfrom a common ancestor. Not even evolutionists try to account for the similarity ofthe eyes of the octopus and man by positing a common ancestor.

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Tasmanian wolf skull

North American wolf skull


Another example of extraordinary resem-blance between placental and marsupialmammal "twins," is that between the extinctmammals Smilodon (below) and Thylacos-milus (above), both predators with enor-mous front teeth. The great degree ofresemblance between the skull and teethstructures of these two mammals, betweenwhich no evolutionary relationship can beestablished, overturns the hom*ologicalview that similar structures are evidence infavour of evolution.


The presence of "twin" species between marsupial and placental mammalsdeals a serious blow to the claim of hom*ology. For example, the marsupial Tas-manian wolf (above) and the placental wolf found in North America resembleeach other to an extraordinary degree. Above can be seen the skulls of thesetwo highly similar animals. Such a close resemblance between the two, whichcannot be suggested to have any "evolutionary relationship", completely invali-dates the claim of hom*ology.

Mammal Twins that Defy hom*ology

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Modern scientific findings show that the claim of a "common ances-tor" made with regard to similar organs is incorrect, and that the only pos-sible explanation is common creation, confirming once again that livingthings were created by Allah.

The Genetic and Embryological Impasse of hom*ologyIn order for the evolutionist claim concerning "hom*ology" to be taken

seriously, similar (hom*ologous) organs in different creatures should alsobe coded with similar (hom*ologous) DNA codes. However, they are not.Similar organs are usually governed by very different genetic (DNA)codes. Furthermore, similar genetic codes in the DNA of different crea-tures are often associated with completely different organs.

Michael Denton, an Australian professor of bio-chemistry, describes in his book Evolution: A Theory inCrisis the genetic impasse of the evolutionist interpreta-tion of hom*ology: "hom*ologous structures are oftenspecified by non-hom*ologous genetic systems and theconcept of hom*ology can seldom be extended back intoembryology." 169

A famous example on this subject is the "five digitskeletal structure" of quadrupeds which is quoted in al-most all evolutionist textbooks. Quadrupeds, i.e., land-living vertebrates, have five digits on their fore- and hindlimbs. Althoughthese do not always have the appearance of five digits as we know them,they are all counted as pentadactyl due to their bone structure. The fore-and hindlimbs of a frog, a lizard, a squirrel or a monkey all have this samestructure. Even the bone structures of birds and bats conform to this basicstructure.

Evolutionists claim that all living things descended from a commonancestor, and they have long cited pentadactyl limb as evidence of this.This claim was mentioned in almost all basic sources on biology through-out the 20th century as very strong evidence for evolution. Genetic find-ings in the 1980s refuted this evolutionist claim. It was realised that thepentadactyl limb patterns of different creatures are controlled by totallydifferent genes. Evolutionist biologist William Fix describes the collapse ofthe evolutionist thesis regarding pentadactylism in this way:

The older text-books on evolution make much of the idea of hom*ology,

Professor MichaelDenton: "Evolution

is a theory in crisis"

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pointing out the obvious resemblances between the skeletons of the limbs ofdifferent animals. Thus the "pentadactyl" limb pattern is found in the arm ofa man, the wing of a bird, and the flipper of a whale, and this is held to indi-cate their common origin. Now if these various structures were transmittedby the same gene couples, varied from time to time by mutations and actedupon by environmental selection, the theory would make good sense. Unfor-tunately this is not the case. hom*ologous organs are now known to be pro-duced by totally different gene complexes in the different species. Theconcept of hom*ology in terms of similar genes handed on from a commonancestor has broken down...170

Another point is that in order for the evolutionary thesis regardinghom*ology to be taken seriously, the periods of similar structures' embry-ological development-in other words, the stages of development in the eggor the mother's womb-would need to be parallel, whereas, in reality, theseembryological periods for similar structures are quite different from eachother in every living creature.

To conclude, we can say that genetic and embryological research hasproven that the concept of hom*ology defined by Darwin as "evidence ofthe evolution of living things from a common ancestor" can by no meansbe regarded as any evidence at all. In this respect, science can be said tohave proven the Darwinist thesis false time and time again.

Invalidity of the Claim of Molecular hom*ologyEvolutionists' advancement of hom*ology as evidence for evolution is

invalid not only at the morphological level, but also at the molecular level.Evolutionists say that the DNA codes, or the corresponding protein struc-tures, of different living species are similar, and that this similarity is evi-dence that these living species have evolved from common ancestors, orelse from each other.

In truth, however, the results of molecular comparisons do not workin favour of the theory of evolution at all. There are huge molecular differ-ences between creatures that appear to be very similar and related. For in-stance, the cytochrome-C protein, one of the proteins vital to respiration, isvery different in living beings of the same class. According to research car-ried out on this matter, the difference between two different reptile speciesis greater than the difference between a bird and a fish or a fish and a mam-mal. Another study has shown that molecular differences between some


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birds are greater than the differences between those same birds and mam-mals. It has also been discovered that the molecular difference betweenbacteria that appear to be very similar is greater than the difference be-tween mammals and amphibians or insects.171 Similar comparisons havebeen made in the cases of haemoglobin, myoglobin, hormones, and genesand similar conclusions are drawn.172

Concerning these findings in the field of molecular biology, Dr.Michael Denton comments:

Each class at a molecular level is unique, isolated and unlinked by inter-mediates. Thus, molecules, like fossils, have failed to provide the elusive in-termediates so long sought by evolutionary biology… At a molecular level,no organism is "ancestral" or "primitive" or "advanced" compared with itsrelatives… There is little doubt that if this molecular evidence had beenavailable a century ago… the idea of organic evolution might never havebeen accepted.173

The Collapse of the “Tree of Life”In the 1990s, research into the genetic codes of living things worsened

the quandary faced by the theory of evolution in this regard. In these ex-periments, instead of the earlier comparisons that were limited to proteinsequences, "ribosomal RNA" (rRNA) sequences were compared. Fromthese findings, evolutionist scientists sought to establish an "evolutionarytree". However, they were disappointed by the results. According to a 1999article by French biologists Hervé Philippe and Patrick Forterre, "withmore and more sequences available, it turned out that most protein pyhlo-genies contradict each other as well as the rRNA tree." 174

Besides rRNA comparisons, the DNA codes in the genes of livingthings were also compared, but the results have been the opposite of the"tree of life" presupposed by evolution. Molecular biologists James A.Lake, Ravi Jain and Maria C. Rivera elaborated on this in an article in 1999:

Scientists started analyzing a variety of genes from different organisms andfound that their relationship to each other contradicted the evolutionary treeof life derived from rRNA analysis alone.175

Neither the comparisons that have been made of proteins, nor thoseof rRNAs or of genes, confirm the premises of the theory of evolution. CarlWoese, a highly reputed biologist from the University of Illinois admitsthat the concept of "phylogeny" has lost its meaning in the face of molecu-

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lar findings in this way:No consistent organismal phylogeny has emerged from the many individ-ual protein phylogenies so far produced. Phylogenetic incongruities can beseen everywhere in the universal tree, from its root to the major branchingswithin and among the various (groups) to the makeup of the primary group-ings themselves." 176

The fact that results of molecular comparisons are not in favour of,but rather opposed to, the theory of evolution is also admitted in an articlecalled "Is it Time to Uproot the Tree of Life?" published in Science in 1999.This article by Elizabeth Pennisi states that the genetic analyses and com-parisons carried out by Darwinist biologists in order to shed light on the"tree of life" actually yielded directly opposite results, and goes on to saythat "new data are muddying the evolutionary picture":

A year ago, biologists looking over newly sequenced genomes from morethan a dozen microorganisms thought these data might support the acceptedplot lines of life's early history. But what they saw confounded them. Com-parisons of the genomes then available not only didn't clarify the picture ofhow life's major groupings evolved, they confused it. And now, with an ad-ditional eight microbial sequences in hand, the situation has gotten evenmore confusing.... Many evolutionary biologists had thought they couldroughly see the beginnings of life's three kingdoms... When full DNA se-quences opened the way to comparing other kinds of genes, researchers ex-pected that they would simply add detail to this tree. But "nothing could befurther from the truth," says Claire Fraser, head of The Institute for GenomicResearch (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland. Instead, the comparisons haveyielded many versions of the tree of life that differ from the rRNA tree andconflict with each other as well...177

In short, as molecular biology advances, the hom*ology concept losesmore ground. Comparisons that have been made of proteins, rRNAs andgenes reveal that creatures which are allegedly close relatives according tothe theory of evolution are actually totally distinct from each other. A 1996study using 88 protein sequences grouped rabbits with primates instead ofrodents; a 1998 analysis of 13 genes in 19 animal species placed sea urchinsamong the chordates; and another 1998 study based on 12 proteins putcows closer to whales than to horses. Molecular biologist Jonathan Wellssums up the situation in 2000 in this way:

Inconsistencies among trees based on different molecules, and the bizarretrees that result from some molecular analyses, have now plunged molecular


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phylogeny into a crisis.178

“Molecular phylogeny” is facing a crisis—which means that the the-ory of evolution also faces a crisis. (Phylogeny refers to the so-called “fam-ily relationships” among various living things and is the hypothetical basisof the theory of evolution.) Once again, science undermines the thesis thatliving things evolved from one another, demonstrating that all livinggroups were created separately.

The Myth of Embryological RecapitulationWhat used to be called the "recapitulation theory" has long been elim-

inated from scientific literature, but it is still being presented as a scientificreality by some evolutionist publications. The term "recapitulation" is acondensation of the dictum "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", put for-ward by the evolutionist biologist Ernst Haeckel at the end of the 19th cen-tury.

This theory of Haeckel's postulates that living embryos re-experiencethe evolutionary process that their pseudo-ancestors underwent. He theo-rised that during its development in its mother's womb, the human em-bryo first displayed the characteristics of a fish,and then those of a reptile, and finally those of ahuman.

It has since been proven that this theory iscompletely bogus. It is now known that the "gills"that supposedly appear in the early stages of thehuman embryo are in fact the initial phases of themiddle-ear canal, parathyroid, and thymus. Thepart of the embryo that was likened to the "eggyolk pouch" turns out to be a pouch that producesblood for the infant. The part that had been identi-fied as a "tail" by Haeckel and his followers is infact the backbone, which resembles a tail only be-cause it takes shape before the legs do.

These are universally acknowledged facts inthe scientific world, and are accepted even byevolutionists themselves. George Gaylord Simp-son, one of the founders of neo-Darwinism,writes:

Why Ev o lu tion ists' Claims Are Invalid 199

Haeckel was an evolutionisteven more ardent than Dar-

win in many respects. Forthis reason, he did not hesi-tate to distort the scientific

data and devise variousforgeries.

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Haeckel misstated the evolutionary principle involved. It is now firmly es-tablished that ontogeny does not repeat phylogeny.179

In an article published in American Scientist, we read:Surely the biogenetic law is as dead as a doornail. It was finally exorcisedfrom biology textbooks in the fifties. As a topic of serious theoretical inquiryit was extinct in the twenties…180

Another interesting aspect of "recapitulation" was Ernst Haeckel him-self, a faker who falsified his drawings in order to support the theory headvanced. Haeckel's forgeries purported to show that fish and human em-bryos resembled one another. When he was caught out, the only defence


These drawings werefabricated byHaeckel to demon-strate the “similari-ties” between humanand fish embryos.Comparing hissketch with a gen-uine human embryo,you can see that hehas deliberatelyomitted a large por-tion of the actual or-gans. (Francish*tching, The Neckof the Giraffe: WhereDarwin Went Wrong,p. 205)







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he offered was that other evolutionists had committed similar offences:After this compromising confession of "forgery" I should be obliged toconsider myself condemned and annihilated if I had not the consolation ofseeing side by side with me in the prisoners' dock hundreds of fellow cul-prits, among them many of the most trusted observers and most esteemed bi-ologists. The great majority of all the diagrams in the best biologicaltextbooks, treatises and journals would incur in the same degree the chargeof "forgery", for all of them are inexact, and are more or less doctored,schematised and constructed.181

There are indeed "hundreds of fellow culprits, among them many ofthe most trusted observers and most esteemed biologists" whose studiesare full of prejudiced conclusions, distortions, and even forgeries. This isbecause they have all conditioned themselves to champion evolutionarytheory although there is not a shred of scientific evidence supporting it. ö

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The The o ry of Ev o lu tion:

A Ma te ri al is tic Li a bil i ty


The information we have considered throughout this book hasshown us that the theory of evolution has no scientific basis, andthat, on the contrary, evolutionist claims conflict with scientific

facts. In other words, the force that keeps evolution alive is not science.The theory of evolution is maintained by some "scientists", but behind itthere is another influence at work.

This other influence is materialist philosophy. Materialist philosophy is one of the oldest beliefs in the world, and as-

sumes the existence of matter as its basic principle. According to this view,matter has always existed, and everything that exists consists of matter.This makes belief in a Creator impossible, of course, because if matter hasalways existed, and if everything consists of matter, then there can be nosuprematerial Creator who created it. Materialism has therefore long beenhostile to religious beliefs of every kind that have faith in Allah.

So the question becomes one of whether the materialist point of viewis correct. One method of testing whether a philosophy is true or false is toinvestigate the claims it makes about science by using scientific methods.For instance, a philosopher in the 10th century could have claimed thatthere was a divine tree on the surface of the moon and that all living thingsactually grew on the branches of this huge tree like fruit, and then fell offonto the earth. Some people might have found this philosophy attractiveand believed in it. But in the 20th century, at a time when man has man-aged to walk on the moon, it is no longer possible to seriously hold such abelief. Whether such a tree exists there or not can be determined by scien-tific methods, that is, by observation and experiment.

We can therefore investigate by means of scientific methods the mate-rialist claim: that matter has existed for all eternity and that this matter canorganise itself without a supramaterial Creator and cause life to begin.When we do this, we see that materialism has already collapsed, because

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The The o ry of Ev o lu tion: A Ma te ri al is tic Li a bil i ty 203

the idea that matter has existed since beginning of time has been over-thrown by the Big Bang theory which shows that the universe was cre-ated from nothingness. The claim that matter organised itself and createdlife is the claim that we call "the theory of evolution" -which this book hasbeen examining-and which has been shown to have collapsed.

However, if someone is determined to believe in materialism andputs his devotion to materialist philosophy before everything else, then hewill act differently. If he is a materialist first and a scientist second, he willnot abandon materialism when he sees that evolution is disproved by sci-ence. On the contrary, he will attempt to uphold and defend materialismby trying to support evolution, no matter what. This is exactly the predica-ment that evolutionists defending the theory of evolution find themselvesin today.

Interestingly enough, they also confess this fact from time to time. Awell-known geneticist and outspoken evolutionist, Richard C. Lewontinfrom Harvard University, confesses that he is "a materialist first and a sci-entist second" in these words:

It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us ac-cept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary,that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create anapparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material expla-nations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to theuninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is absolute, so we cannot allow aDivine [intervention].182

The term "a priori" that Lewontin uses here is quite important. Thisphilosophical term refers to a presupposition not based on any experimen-tal knowledge. A thought is "a priori" when you consider it to be correctand accept it as so even if there is no information available to confirm it. Asthe evolutionist Lewontin frankly states, materialism is an "a priori" com-mitment for evolutionists, who then try to adapt science to this preconcep-tion. Since materialism definitely necessitates denying the existence of aCreator, they embrace the only alternative they have in hand, which is thetheory of evolution. It does not matter to such scientists that evolution hasbeen belied by scientific facts, because they have accepted it "a priori" astrue.

This prejudiced behaviour leads evolutionists to a belief that "uncon-scious matter composed itself", which is contrary not only to science, but

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also to reason. Profes-sor of chemistry fromNew York Universityand a DNA expertRobert Shapiro, as wehave quoted before,explains this belief ofevolutionists and thematerialist dogmalying at its base as fol-lows:

Another evolution-ary principle is therefore needed to take us

across the gap from mixtures of simple natural chemicalsto the first effective replicator. This principle has not yet been

described in detail or demonstrated, but it is anticipated, and givennames such as chemical evolution and self-organization of matter. The exis-tence of the principle is taken for granted in the philosophy of dialecticalmaterialism, as applied to the origin of life by Alexander Oparin.183

Evolutionist propaganda, which we constantly come across in theWestern media and in well-known and "esteemed" science magazines, isthe outcome of this ideological necessity. Since evolution is considered tobe indispensable, it has been turned into a sacred cow by the circles that setthe standards of science.

Some scientists find themselves in a position where they are forcedto defend this far-fetched theory, or at least avoid uttering any wordagainst it, in order to maintain their reputations. Academics in the West-ern countries have to have articles published in certain scientific journalsto attain and hold onto their professorships. All of the journals dealingwith biology are under the control of evolutionists, and they do not allowany anti-evolutionist article to appear in them. Biologists, therefore, haveto conduct their research under the domination of this theory. They, too,are part of the established order, which regards evolution as an ideologicalnecessity, which is why they blindly defend all the "impossible coinci-dences" we have been examining in this book.



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Materialist ConfessionsThe German biologist Hoimar von Ditfurth, a prominent evolutionist,

is a good example of this bigoted materialist understanding. After Ditfurthcites an example of the extremely complex composition of life, this is whathe says concerning the question of whether it could have emerged bychance or not:

Is such a harmony that emerged only out of coincidences possible in reality?This is the basic question of the whole of biological evolution. Answering this

The only reason that Darwin's theory is still defended despite its obviousrefutation by science is the close link between that theory and materialism.Darwin applied materialist philosophy to the natural sciences and the ad-

vocates of this philosophy, Marxists being foremost among them, go on defend-ing Darwinism no matter what.

One of the most famous contemporary champions of the theory of evolu-tion, the biologist Douglas Futuyma, wrote: "Together with Marx's materialistictheory of history… Darwin's theory of evolution was a crucial plank in the plat-form of mechanism and materialism." This is a very clear admission of why thetheory of evolution is really so important to its defenders.1

Another famous evolutionist, the paleontologist Stephen J. Gould said:"Darwin applied a consistent philosophy of materialism to his interpretation ofnature".2 Leon Trotsky, one of the masterminds of the Russian Communist Rev-olution along with Lenin, commented: "The discovery by Darwin was the highesttriumph of the dialectic in the whole field of organic matter."3 However, sciencehas shown that Darwinism was not a victory for materialism but rather a sign ofthat philosophy's overthrow.

Trot sky Dar win Marx

1- Douglas Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2nd ed., Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 1986, p. 3 2- Alan Woods and Ted Grant, "Marxism and Darwinism", Reason in Revolt: Marxism and

Modern Science, London, 19933- Alan Woods and Ted Grant. "Marxism and Darwinism", London, 1993


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question as "Yes, it is possible" is something like verifying faith in the mod-ern science of nature. Critically speaking, we can say that somebody who ac-cepts the modern science of nature has no other alternative than to say "yes",because he aims to explain natural phenomena by means that are under-standable and tries to derive them from the laws of nature without revertingto supernatural interference. However, at this point, explaining everythingby means of the laws of nature, that is, by coincidences, is a sign that he hasnowhere else to turn. Because what else could he do other than believe in co-incidences?184

As Ditfurth states, the materialist scientific approach adopts as itsbasic principle explaining life by denying "supernatural interference", i.e.creation. Once this principle is adopted, even the most impossible scenar-ios are easily accepted. It is possible to find examples of this dogmaticmentality in almost all evolutionist literature. Professor Ali Demirsoy, thewell-known advocate of evolutionary theory in Turkey, is just one ofmany. As we have already pointed out, according to Demirsoy: the proba-bility of the coincidental formation of cythochrome-C, an essential proteinfor life, is "as unlikely as the possibility of a monkey writing the historyof humanity on a typewriter without making any mistakes".185

There is no doubt that to accept such a possibility is actually to rejectthe basic principles of reason and common sense. Even one single correctlyformed letter written on a page makes it certain that it was written by aperson. When one sees a book of world history, it becomes even more cer-tain that the book has been written by an author. No logical person wouldagree that the letters in such a huge book could have been put together "bychance".

However, it is very interesting to see that the "evolutionist scientist"Professor Ali Demirsoy accepts this sort of irrational proposition:

In essence, the probability of the formation of a cytochrome-C sequence is aslikely as zero. That is, if life requires a certain sequence, it can be said that thishas a probability likely to be realised once in the whole universe. Otherwisesome metaphysical powers beyond our definition must have acted in its for-mation. To accept the latter is not appropriate for the scientific goal. We thushave to look into the first hypothesis.186

Demirsoy writes that he prefers the impossible, in order "not to haveto accept supernatural forces"-in other words, the existence of a Creator. Itis clear that this approach has no relation whatsoever with science. Notsurprisingly, when Demirsoy cites another subject-the origins of the mito-

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C onstituting as it does the philosophicalunderpinnings of the theory of evolu-

tion, 19th-century materialism suggestedthat the universe existed since eternity, thatit was not created, and that the organicworld could be explained in terms of the in-teractions of matter. The discoveries of20th-century science however have com-pletely invalidated these hypotheses.

The supposition that the universe hasexisted since eternity was blown away bythe discovery that the universe originatedfrom a great explosion (the so-called "BigBang") that took place nearly 15 billionyears ago. The Big Bang shows that allphysical substances in the universe cameinto being out of nothing: in other words,they were created. One of the foremost ad-vocates of materialism, the atheist philoso-pher Anthony Flew concedes:

Notoriously, confession is good for thesoul. I will therefore begin by confess-ing that the Stratonician atheist has tobe embarressed by the contemporarycosmological consensus (Big Bang).For it seems that the cosmologists areproviding a scientific proof ... that theuniverse had a beginning.1

The Big Bang also shows that at eachstage, the universe was shaped by a con-trolled Creation. This is made clear by theorder that came about after the Big Bang,which was too perfect to have been formedfrom an uncontrolled explosion. The fa-mous physician Paul Davies explains thissituation:

It is hard to resist the impression thatthe present structure of the universe,apparently so sensitive to minor alter-ations in the numbers, has been rathercarefully thought out... The seemingmiraculous concurrence of numericalvalues that nature has assigned to herfundamental constants must remain themost compelling evidence for an ele-ment of cosmic design.2

The same reality makes an Americanprofessor of astronomy, George Green-stein, say:

As we survey all the evidence, thethought insistently arises that some su-pernatural agency -or rather Agency-must be involved.3

Thus, the materialistic hypothesis thatlife can be explained solely in terms of theinteractions of matter also collapsed in theface of the the discoveries of science. Inparticular, the origin of the genetic informa-tion that determines all living things can byno means be explained by any purely mate-rial agent. One of the leading defenders ofthe theory of evolution, George C. Williams,admits this fact in an article he wrote in1995:

Evolutionist biologists have failed to re-alize that they work with two more orless incommensurable domains: that ofinformation and that of matter... thegene is a package of information, not anobject... This dearth descriptors makesmatter and information two separate do-mains of existence, which have to bediscussed separately, in their ownterms.4

This situation is evidence for the exis-tence of a supra-material Wisdom thatmakes genetic information exist. It is im-possible for matter to produce informationwithin itself. The director of the GermanFederal Institute of Physics and Technol-ogy, Proffessor Werner Gitt, remarks:

All experiences indicate that a thinkingbeing voluntarily exercising his ownfree will, cognition, and creativity, is re-quired. There is no known law of nature,no known process and no known se-quence of events which can cause infor-mation to originate by itself in matter.5

All these scientific facts illustrate thatAllah, Who has external power and knowl-edge, creates the universe and all livingthings. As for materialism, Arthur Koestler,one of the most renowned philosophers ofour century says: "It can no longer claim tobe a scientific philosophy"6

The Scientific Death of Materialism

1- Henry Margenau, Roy A. Vargesse, Cosmos, Bios, Theos, La Salle IL: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 241

2- Paul Davies, God and the New Physics, New York: Simon& Schuster, 1983, p. 1893- Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos. Colorado

Springs, CO: Nav-Press, 1993, pp. 114-154- George C. Williams, The Third Culture: Beyond the

Scientific Revolution, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1995,pp. 42-43

5- Werner Gitt, In the Beginning Was Information, CLV, Bielefeld, Germany, pp. 107, 141

6- Arthur Koestler, Janus: A Summing Up, New York, Vintage Books, 1978, p. 250

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chondria in the cell-he openly ac-cepts coincidence as an expla-nation, even though it is"quite contrary to scien-tific thought".

The heart of theproblem is how themitochondria haveacquired this fea-ture, because at-taining thisfeature by chanceeven by one indi-vidual, requires ex-treme probabilitiesthat are incomprehen-sible... The enzymes pro-viding respiration andfunctioning as a catalyst ineach step in a different formmake up the core of the mecha-nism. A cell has to contain this en-zyme sequence completely,otherwise it is meaningless. Here, de-spite being contrary to biological thought, in order to avoid a more dog-matic explanation or speculation, we have to accept, though reluctantly, thatall the respiration enzymes completely existed in the cell before the cell firstcame in contact with oxygen.187

The conclusion to be drawn from such pronouncements is that evolu-tion is not a theory arrived at through scientific investigation. On the con-trary, the form and substance of this theory were dictated by therequirements of materialistic philosophy. It then turned into a belief ordogma in spite of concrete scientific facts. Again, we can clearly see fromevolutionist literature that all of this effort has a "purpose"-and that pur-pose precludes any belief that all living things were not created no matterwhat the price.

Evolutionists define this purpose as "scientific". However, what theyrefer to is not science but materialist philosophy. Materialism absolutelyrejects the existence of anything "beyond" matter (or of anything supernat-


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ural). Science itself isnot obliged to acceptsuch a dogma. Sciencemeans exploring natureand deriving conclu-sions from one's find-ings. If these findingslead to the conclusionthat nature is created,science has to accept it.That is the duty of atrue scientist; not de-fending impossible sce-narios by clinging to theoutdated materialistdogmas of the 19th cen-tury.

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As what we have examined so far has demonstrated, the theory ofevolution rests on no scientific basis. However most peoplearound the world are unaware of this and assume that evolution

is a scientific fact. The biggest reason for this deception is the systematic in-doctrination and propaganda conducted by the media about evolution.For this reason, we also have to mention the particular characteristics ofthis indoctrination and propaganda.

When we look at the Western media carefully, we frequently comeacross news dwelling on the theory of evolution. Leading media organisa-tions, and well-known and "respectable" magazines periodically bring thissubject up. When their approach is examined, one gets the impression thatthis theory is an absolutely proven fact leaving no room for discussion.

Ordinary people reading this kind of news naturally start to thinkthat the theory of evolution is a fact as certain as any law of mathematics.News of this sort that appears in the prominent media engines is alsopicked up by local media. They print headlines in big fonts: "According toTime magazine, a new fossil that completes the gap in the fossil chain hasbeen found"; or "Nature" indicates that scientists have shed light on thefinal issues of evolutionary theory". The finding of "the last missing link ofthe evolution chain" means nothing because there is not a single thingproven about evolution. Everything shown as evidence is false as we havedescribed in the previous chapters. In addition to the media, the sameholds true for scientific resources, encyclopaedias, and biology books.

In short, both the media and academic circles, which are at the dis-posal of anti-religionist power-centres, maintain an entirely evolutionistview and they impose this on society. This imposition is so effective that ithas in time turned evolution into an idea that is never to be rejected. Deny-ing evolution is seen as being contradictory to science and as disregardingfundamental realities. This is why, notwithstanding so many deficiencies

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Me dia: An Oxygen Tent for the Theory of Evolution 211

that have so far been revealed (especially since the 1950s) and the fact that

these have been confessed by evolutionist scientists themselves, today it is

all but impossible to find any criticism of evolution in scientific circles or in

the media.

Widely accepted as the most "respected" publishing vehicles on biol-

ogy and nature in the West, magazines such as Scientific American, Nature,

Focus, Discover, Science and National Geographic adopt the theory of evolu-

tion as an official ideology and try to present this theory as a proven fact.

Popular science magazines havingtaken over the leader-ship of evolution pro-paganda, play animportant role in en-couraging the publicto accept the theory ofevolution.


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Wrapped-up LiesEvolutionists make great use of the advantage given to them by the

"brain-washing" program of the media. Many people believe in evolutionso unconditionally that they do not even bother to ask "how" and "why".This means that evolutionists can package their lies so as to be easily per-suasive.

For instance, even in the most "scientific" evolutionist books the "tran-sition from water to land", which is one of the greatest unaccounted-forphenomena of evolution, is "explained" with ridiculous simplicity. Ac-cording to evolution, life started in water and the first developed animalswere fish. The theory has it that one day these fish started to fling them-selves on to the land for some reason or other, (most of the time, drought issaid to be the reason), and the fish that chose to live on land, happened tohave feet instead of fins, and lungs instead of gills.

Most evolutionist books do not tell the "how" of the subject. Even inthe most "scientific" sources, the absurdity of this assertion is concealed be-hind sentences such as "the transfer from water to land was achieved".

How was this "transfer" achieved? We know that a fish cannot live formore than a few minutes out of water. If we suppose that the allegeddrought occurred and the fish had to move towards the land, what wouldhave happened to the fish? The response is evident. All of the fish comingout of the water would die one by one in a few minutes. Even if this processhad had lasted for a period of ten million years, the answer would still be thesame: fish would die one by one. The reason is that such a complex organ asa complete lung cannot come into being by a sudden "accident", that is, bymutation; but half a lung, on the other hand, is of no use at all.

But this is exactly what the evolutionists propose. "Transfer fromwater to land", "transfer from land to air" and many more alleged leapsare "explained" in these illogical terms. As for the formation of really com-plex organs such as the eye and ear, evolutionists prefer not to say any-thing at all.

It is easy to influence the man on the street with the package of "sci-ence". You draw an imaginary picture representing transfer from water toland, you invent Latin words for the animal in the water, its "descendant"on land, and the "transitional intermediary form" (which is an imaginaryanimal), and then fabricate an elaborate lie: "Eusthenopteron transformed

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Me dia: An Oxygen Tent for the Theory of Evolution 213

first into Rhipitistian Crossoptergian, then Ichthyostega in a long evolutionaryprocess". If you put these words in the mouth of a scientist with thickglasses and a white coat, you would succeed in convincing many people,because the media, which dedicates itself to promoting evolution, wouldannounce the good news to the world with great enthusiasm.

O ne of the curious evolutionary fables is the one about the "evolution of whale"that was published in National Geographic, widely respected as one of themost scientific and serious publications in the world:

The Whale's ascendancy to sovereign size apparently began sixty million years agowhen hairy, four-legged mammals, in search of food or sanctuary, ventured intowater. As eons passed, changes slowly occurred. Hind legs disappeared, front legschanged into flippers, hair gave way to a thick smooth blanket of blubber, nostrilsmoved to the top of the head, the tail broadened into flukes, and in the buoyantwater world the body became enormous.1

Besides the fact that there is not a single scientific basis for any of this, such an oc-currence is also contrary to the principles of nature. This fable published in NationalGeographic is noteworthy for being indicative of the extent of the fallacies of seeminglyserious evolutionist publications.

1- Victor B. Scheffer, "Exploring the Lives of Whales", National Geographic, vol. 50, December 1976, p. 752


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There is much other evidence, as well as scientific laws, invalidatingevolution, but in this book we have only been able to discuss someof them. Even those should be enough to reveal a most important

truth: Although it is cloaked in the guise of science, the theory of evolutionis nothing but a deceit: a deceit defended only for the benefit of materialis-tic philosophy; a deceit based not on science but on brainwashing, propa-ganda, and fraud.

We can summarise what we have noted so far as follows:

The Theory of Evolution has CollapsedThe theory of evolution is a theory that fails at the very first step. The

reason is that evolutionists are unable to explain even the formation of asingle protein. Neither the laws of probability nor the laws of physics andchemistry offer any chance for the fortuitous formation of life.

Does it sound logical or reasonable when not even a single chance-formed protein can exist, that millions of such proteins combined in anorder to produce the cell of a living thing; and that billions of cells man-aged to form and then came together by chance to produce living things;and that from them generated fish; and that those that passed to landturned into reptiles, birds, and that this is how all the millions of differentspecies on earth were formed?

Even if it does not seem logical to you, evolutionists do believe thisfable.

However, it is merely a belief-or rather a false faith-because they donot have even a single piece of evidence to verify their story. They havenever found a single transitional form such as a half-fish/half-reptile orhalf-reptile/half-bird. Nor have they been able to prove that a protein, oreven a single amino acid molecule composing a protein, could haveformed under what they call primordial earth conditions; not even in their

Con clu sion:

Ev o lu tion Is a De ceit


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Con clu sion: Ev o lu tion Is a De ceit 215

elaborately-equipped laboratories have they succeeded in doing that. Onthe contrary, with their every effort, evolutionists themselves have demon-strated that no evolutionary process has ever occurred nor could ever haveoccurred at any time on earth.

Evolution Can Not Be Verified in the Future EitherSeeing this, evolutionists can only console themselves by dreaming

that science will somehow resolve all these dilemmas in time. However,that science should ever verify such an entirely groundless and illogicalclaim is out of the question no matter how many years may pass by. On thecontrary, as science progresses it only makes the nonsense of evolutionists'claims clearer and plainer.

That is how it has been so far. As more details on the structure andfunctions of the living cell were discovered, it became abundantly clearthat the cell is not a simple, randomly-formed composition, as was thoughtto be the case according to the primitive biological understanding of Dar-win's time.

With the situation being so self-evident, denying the fact of creationand basing the origins of life on extremely unlikely coincidences, and thendefending these claims with insistence, may later become a source of greathumiliation. As the real face of the evolution theory comes more and moreinto view and as public opinion comes to see the truth, it may not be longbefore the purblind fanatic advocates of evolution will not be able to showtheir faces.

The Biggest Obstacle to Evolution: SoulThere are many species in the world that resemble one another. For

instance, there may be many living beings resembling a horse or a cat andmany insects may look like one another. These similarities do not surpriseanyone.

The superficial similarities between man and ape somehow attracttoo much attention. This interest sometimes goes so far as to make somepeople believe the false thesis of evolution. As a matter of fact, the superfi-cial similarities between men and apes do signify nothing. The rhinocerosbeetle and the rhinoceros also share certain superficial resemblances but itwould be ludicrous to seek to establish some kind of an evolutionary link

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between these two creatures, one being an insect and the other a mammal,on the grounds of that resemblance.

Other than superficial similarity, apes cannot be said to be closer toman than to other animals. Actually, if level of intelligence is considered,then the honeybee producing the geometrically miraculous structure of thehoneycomb or the spider building up the engineering miracle of the spiderweb can be said to be closer to man. They are even superior in some as-pects.

There is a very big difference between man and ape regardless of amere outward resemblance. An ape is an animal and is no different from ahorse or a dog considering its level of consciousness. Yet man is a con-scious, strong-willed being that can think, talk, understand, decide, andjudge. All of these features are the functions of the soul that man pos-sesses. The soul is the most important difference that interposes a hugegap between man and other creatures. No physical similarity can close thisgap between man and any other living being. In nature, the only livingthing that has a soul is man.

Allah Creates According to His WillWould it matter if the scenario proposed by evolutionists really had

taken place? Not a bit. The reason is that each stage advanced by evolu-tionary theory and based on coincidence could only have occurred as a re-sult of a miracle. Even if life did come about gradually through such asuccession of stages, each progressive stage could only have been broughtabout by a conscious will. It is not just implausible that those stages couldhave occurred by chance, it is impossible.

If is said that a protein molecule had been formed under the primor-dial atmospheric conditions, it has to be remembered that it has been al-ready demonstrated by the laws of probability, biology, and chemistrythat this could not have been by chance. But if it must be posited that it wasproduced, then there is no alternative but to admit that it owed its exis-tence to the will of a Creator. The same logic applies to the entire hypothe-sis put forward by evolutionists. For instance, there is neitherpaleontological evidence nor a physical, chemical, biological, or logicaljustification proving that fish passed from water to land and formed theland animals. But if one must have it that fish clambered onto the land and

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Con clu sion: Ev o lu tion Is a De ceit 217

turned into reptiles, the maker of that claim should also accept the exis-tence of a Creator capable of making whatever He wills come into beingwith the mere word "be". Any other explanation for such a miracle is in-herently self-contradictory and a violation of the principles of reason.

The reality is clear and evident. All life is the product of a perfectorder and a superior Creation. This in turn provides concrete evidence forthe existence of a Creator, the Possessor of infinite power, knowledge, andintelligence.

That Creator is Allah, the Lord of the heavens and of the earth, and ofall that is between them.

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The Fact of Cre a tion


I n the previous sections of the book, we examined why the theory ofEvolution, which proposes that life was not created, is a fallacy com-pletely contrary to scientific facts. We saw that modern science has re-

vealed a very explicit fact through certain branches of science such aspaleontology, biochemistry, and anatomy. This fact is that Allah creates allliving beings.

In fact, to notice this fact one does not necessarily need to appeal to thecomplicated results obtained in biochemistry laboratories or geological exca-vations. The signs of an extraordinary wisdom are discernible in whateverliving being one observes. There is a great technology and design in thebody of an insect or a tiny fish in the depths of the sea never attained byhuman beings. Some living beings which even do not have a brain perfectlyperform so complicated tasks as not to be accomplished even by human be-ings.

This great wisdom, organization and plan that prevails overall in na-ture, provides solid evidence for the existence of a supreme Creator domi-nating over the whole of nature, and this Creator is Allah. Allah hasfurnished all living beings with extraordinary features and showed men theevident signs of His existence and might.

In the following pages, we will examine only a few of the countless ev-idences of Creation in nature.

Honey Bees and the Architectural Wonders of HoneycombsBees produce more honey than they actually need and store it in hon-

eycombs. The hexagonal structure of the honeycomb is well-known toeveryone. Have you ever wondered why bees construct hexagonal honey-combs rather than octagonal, or pentagonal?

Mathematicians looking for answer to this question reached an interest-ing conclusion: "A hexagon is the most appropriate geometric form for themaximum use of a given area."

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A hexagonal cell requires the minimum amount ofwax for construction while it stores the maximum amount

of honey. So the bee uses the most appropriate form possi-ble.

The method used in the construction of the honeycombis also very amazing: bees start the construction of the hive

from two-three different places and weave the honeycomb simultaneouslyin two-three strings. Though they start from different places, the bees, greatin number, construct identical hexagons and then weave the honeycomb bycombining these together and meeting in the middle. The junction points ofthe hexagons are assembled so deftly that there is no sign of their being sub-sequently combined.

In the face of this extraordinary performance, we, for sure, have toadmit the existence of a superior will that ordains these creatures. Evolu-tionists want to explain away this achievement with the concept of "instinct"and try to present it as a simple attribute of the bee. However, if there is aninstinct at work, if this rules over all bees and provides that all bees work inharmony though uninformed of one another, then it means that there is anexalted Wisdom that rules over all these tiny creatures.

To put it more explicitly, Allah, the creator of these tiny creatures, "in-spires" them with what they have to do. This fact was declared in the Qur'anfourteen centuries ago:

And your Sustainer has inspired the honey bee: "Prepare for yourselfdwellings in mountains and in trees, and in what [men] build; and then eatof all manner of fruit, and find with skill the spacious paths of your Sus-

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tainer". There issues from within their bodies adrink of varying colours, wherein is healingfor men: verily in this is a Sign for thosewho give thought. (Surat an-Nahl, 68-69)

Amazing Architects: TermitesNo one can help being taken by sur-

prise upon seeing a termite nest erectedon the ground by termites. This is becausethe termite nests are architectural wondersthat rise up as high as 5-6 meters. Within thisnest are sophisticated systems to meet all theneeds of termites that can never appear in sunlight be-cause of their body structure. In the nest, there are ventilation systems,canals, larva rooms, corridors, special fungus production yards, safety exits,rooms for hot and cold weather; in brief, everything. What is more astonish-ing is that the termites which construct these wondrous nests are blind.188

Despite this fact, we see, when we compare the size of a termite and itsnest, that termites successfully overcome an architectural project by far 300times bigger than themselves.

Termites have yet another amazing characteristic: if we di-vide a termite nest into two in the first stages of its

construction, and then reunite it after a certainwhile, we will see that all passage-ways, canalsand roads intersect with each other. Termites

carry on with their task as if they were never sepa-rated from each other and ordained from a singleplace.

The Woodpecker Everyone knows that woodpeckers build their

nests by pecking tree trunks. The point many peopledo not consider is how woodpeckers undergo no

brain haemorrhage when they so strongly tattoo withtheir head. What the woodpecker does is in a way simi-

lar to a human driving a nail in the wall with his head. If


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a human ventured to do something like that, he would probably undergo abrain shock followed by a brain haemorrhage. A woodpecker, however, canpeck a hard tree trunk 38-43 times between 2.10 and 2.69 seconds and noth-ing happens to it.

Nothing happens because the head structure of woodpeckers are cre-ated as fit for this job. The woodpecker's skull has a "suspension" system thatreduces and absorbs the force of the strokes. There are special softening tis-sues between the bones in its skull.189

The Sonar System of BatsBats fly in pitch dark without trouble and they have a very interesting

navigation system to do this. It is what we call "sonar" system, a systemwhereby the shapes of the surrounding objects are determined according tothe echo of the sound waves.

A young person can barely detect a sound with a frequency of 20,000vibrations per second. A bat furnished with a specially created "sonar sys-tem", however, makes use of sounds having a frequency of between 50,000and 200,000 vibrations per second. It sends these sounds in all directions 20or 30 times each second. The echo of the sound is so powerful that the batnot only understands the existence of objects in its path, but also detects thelocation of its swift-flying prey.190

WhalesMammals regularly need to

breathe and for this reason wateris not a very convenient environ-ment for them. In a whale, which is asea mammal, however, this problem ishandled with a breathing system farmore efficient than that of manyland-dwelling animals. Whalesbreathe out one at a time discharging90% of the air they use. Thus, theyneed to breathe only at very long inter-vals. At the same time, they have ahighly concentrated substance called

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"myoglobin" that helps them store oxygen in their muscles. With the help ofthese systems, finback whale, for instance, can dive as deep as 500 metersand swim for 40 minutes without breathing at all.191 The nostrils of thewhale, on the other hand, are placed on its back unlike land-dwelling mam-mals so that it can easily breathe.

The Creation Miracles in the GnatWe always think of the gnat as a flying animal. In fact, the gnat spends

its developmental stages under water and gets out from under waterthrough an exceptional structure being provided with all the organs itneeds.

The gnat starts to fly with special sensing systems at its disposal to de-tect the place of its prey. With these systems, it resembles a war plane loadedwith detectors of heat, gas, dampness and odour. It even has an ability to"see in conformity with the temperature" that helps it find its prey even inpitch dark.

The "blood-sucking" technique of the gnat comes with an incrediblycomplex system. With its six-bladed cutting system, it cuts the skin like a

saw. While the cutting process goeson, a secretion secreted on thewound benumbs the tissues and theperson does not even realise that hisblood is being sucked. This secre-tion, at the same time, prevents theclotting of the blood and secures thecontinuance of the sucking process.

With even one of these ele-ments missing, the gnat will not beable to feed on blood and carry on

its generation. With its exceptional structure, even this tiny creature is an ev-ident sign of Creation on its own. In the Qur'an, the gnat is accentuated as anexample displaying the existence of Allah to the men of understanding:

Surely Allah disdains not to set forth any parable - [that of] a [female] gnat orany thing above that; then as for those who believe, they know that it is thetruth from their Lord, and as for those who disbelieve, they say: What is itthat Allah means by this parable: He causes many to err by it and many Heleads aright by it! but He does not cause to err by it [any] except the trans-gressors. (Surat al-Baqara, 26)


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Hunting Birds with Keen EyesightHunting birds have keen eyes that enable them to make perfect dis-

tance adjustments while they attack their prey. In addition their large eyescontain more vision cells, which means better sight. There are more than onemillion vision cells in the eye of a hunting bird.

Eagles that fly at thousands of meters high have such sharp eyes thatthey can scan the earth perfectly at that distance. Just as war planes detecttheir targets from thousands ofmeters away, so do eagles spottheir prey, perceiving the slightestcolour shift or the slightest move-ment on the earth. The eagle's eyehas an angle of vision of three hun-dred degrees and it can magnify agiven image around six to eighttimes. Eagles can scan an area of30,000 hectares while flying 4,500meters above it. They can easilydistinguish a rabbit hidden amonggrasses from an altitude of 1,500 meters. It is evident that this extraordinaryeye structure of the eagle is specially created for this creature.

The Thread of the SpiderThe spider named Dinopis has a great skill for hunting. Rather than

weaving a static web and waiting for its prey, it weaves a small yet highlyunusual web that it throws on its prey. Afterwards, it tightly wraps up itsprey with this web. The entrapped insect can do nothing to extricate itself.The web is so perfectly constructed that the insect gets even more entangledas it gets more alarmed. In order to store its food, the spider wraps the preywith extra strands, almost as if it were packaging it.

How does this spider make a web so excellent in its mechanical andchemical structure? It is impossible for the spider to have acquired such askill by coincidence as is claimed by evolutionists. The spider is devoid offaculties such as learning and memorising and does not have even a brain toperform these things. Obviously, this skill is bestowed on the spider by itscreator, Allah, Who is Exalted in Power.

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Very important miracles are hidden inthe thread of the spiders. This thread, with adiameter of less than one thousandth of amillimetre, is 5 times stronger than a steelwire having the same thickness. This threadhas yet another characteristic of being ex-tremely light. A length of this thread longenough to encircle the world would weigh only 320 grams.192 Steel, a sub-stance specially produced in industrial works, is one of the strongest materi-als manufactured by mankind. However, the spider can produce in its bodya far firmer thread than steel. While man produces steel, he makes use of hiscenturies-old knowledge and technology; which knowledge or technology,then, does the spider use while producing its thread?

As we see, all technological and technical means at the disposalmankind lag behind those of a spider.

Hibernating AnimalsHibernating animals can go on living although their body temperature

falls to the same degree as the cold temperature outside. How do they man-age this?

Mammals are warm-blooded. This means that under normal condi-tions, their body temperature always remains constant because the naturalthermostat in their body keeps on regulating this temperature. However,during hibernation, the normal body heat of small mammals, like the squir-rel rat with a normal body heat of 40 degrees, drops down to a little bit abovethe freezing point as if adjusted by some kind of a key. The body metabolismslows down to a great extent. The animal starts breathing very slowly and itsnormal heartbeat, which is 300 times a minute, falls to 7-10 beats a minute.


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Its normal body reflexes stop and the electrical activities in its brain slowdown almost to undetectability.

One of the dangers of motionlessness is the freezing of tissues in verycold weather and their being destroyed by ice crystals. Hibernating animalshowever are protected against this danger thanks to the special features theyare endowed with. The body fluids of hibernating animals are retained bychemical materials having high molecular masses. Thus, their freezing pointis decreased and they are protected from harm.193

Electrical FishCertain species of some fish types such as electric eel and electric ray

utilise the electricity produced in their bodies either to protect themselvesfrom their enemies or to paralyse their prey. In every living being - includingman - is a little amount of electricity. Man, however, cannot direct this elec-tricity or take it under control to use it for his own benefit. The above-men-tioned creatures, on the other hand, have an electrical current as high as500-600 volts in their bodies and they are able use this against their enemies.Furthermore, they are not adversely affected by this electricity.

The energy they consume to defend themselves is recovered after a cer-tain time like the charging of a battery and electrical power is once againready for use. Fish do not use the high-voltage electricity in their small bod-ies only for defence purposes. Besides providing the means for finding theirway in deep dark waters, electricity also helps them sense objects withoutseeing them. Fish can send signals by using the electricity in their bodies.These electric signals reflect back after hitting solid objects and these reflec-tions give the fish information about the object. This way, fish can determinethe distance and size of the object.194

A Perfect Plan on Animals: Camouflage One of the features that animals possess in order to keep living is the art

of hiding themselves-that is, "camouflage". Animals feel the necessity of hiding themselves for two main reasons:

for hunting and for protecting themselves from predators. Camouflage dif-fers from all other methods with its particular involvement of utmost intelli-

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gence, skill, aesthetics and harmony.

The camouflage techniques of animals are truly amazing. It is almostimpossible to identify an insect that is hidden in a tree trunk or another crea-ture hidden under a leaf.

Leaf louse that suck the juices of plants feed themselves on plant stalksby pretending to be thorns. By this method, they aim to trick birds, theirbiggest enemies, and ensure that birds will not perch on these plants.

CuttlefishUnder the skin of the cuttlefish is arrayed a dense layer of elastic pig-

ment sacs called chromatophores. They come mainly in yellow, red, blackand brown. At a signal, the cells expand and flood the skin with the appro-priate shade. That is how the cuttlefish takes on the colour of the rock itstands on and makes a perfect camouflage.


Above: Tree louse im i tat ing tree thorns. Right above: A snake con ceal ing it self by sus -pend ing it self among leaves. Right be low: A cat er pil lar set tled right in the mid dle of aleaf to go un no ticed.

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This system operates so effectively that the cuttlefish can also create acomplex zebra-like striping.195

Different Vision SystemsFor many sea-dwelling animals, seeing is extremely important for hunt-

ing and defence. Accordingly, most of the sea-dwelling animals areequipped with eyes perfectly created for underwater.

Under water, the ability to see becomes more and more limited withdepth, especially after 30 meters. Organisms living at this depth, however,have eyes created according to the given conditions.

Sea-dwelling animals, unlike land-dwelling animals, have sphericallenses in perfect accordance with the needs of the density of the water theyinhabit. Compared to the wide elliptical eyes of land-dwelling animals, thisspherical structure is more serviceable for sight under water; it is adjusted tosee objects in close-up. When an object at a greater distance is focused upon,the whole lens system is pulled backwards by the help of a special musclemechanism within the eye.

One other reason why the eyes of the fish are spherical is the refractionof light in water. Because the eye is filled with a liquid having almost thesame density as water, no refraction occurs while an image formed outsideis reflected on the eye. Consequently, the eye lens fully focuses the image ofthe outside object on the retina. The fish, unlike human beings, sees verysharply in water.

Some animals like octopus have rather big eyes to compensate for thepoor light in the depths of water. Below 300 meters, big-eyed fish need tocapture the flashes of the surrounding organisms to notice them. They have

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Left: A cut tle fish that makes it self look like the sandy sur face. Right: The bright yel lowcol our the same fish turns in case of dan ger, such as when it is seen by a div er.

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to be especially sensitive to the feeble blue light penetrating into the water.For this reason, there are plenty of sensitive blue cells in the retina of theireyes.

As is understood from these examples, every living being has distinc-tive eyes specially created to meet its particular needs. This fact proves thatthey are all created just the way they have to be by a Creator Who has eter-nal wisdom, knowledge and power.

Special Freezing SystemA frozen frog embodies an unusual biological structure. It shows no

signs of life. Its heartbeat, breathing and blood circulation have come com-pletely to a halt. When the ice melts, however, the same frog returns to life asif it is has woken up from sleep.

Normally, a living being in the state of freezing confronts many fatalrisks. The frog, however, does not face any of them. It has the main feature ofproducing plenty of glucose while it is in that state. Just like a diabetic, theblood sugar level of the frog reaches very high levels. It can sometimes go ashigh as 550 milimol/liter. (This figure is normally between 1-5 mmol/litrefor frogs and 4-5 mmol/litre for human body). This extreme glucose concen-tration may cause serious problems in normal times.

In a frozen frog, however, this extreme glucose keeps water from leav-ing cells and prevents shrinkage. The cell membrane of the frog is highlypermeable to glucose so that glucose finds easy access to cells. The high levelof glucose in the body reduces the freezing temperature causing only a very


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small amount of the animal's inner body liquid to turn to ice in the cold. Re-search has showed that glucose can feed frozen cells as well. During this pe-riod, besides being the natural fuel of the body, glucose also stops manymetabolic reactions like urea synthesis and thus prevents different foodsources of the cell from being exhausted.

How does such a high amount of glucose in the frog's body come aboutall of a sudden? The answer is quite interesting: this living being is equippedwith a very special system in charge of this task. As soon as ice appears onthe skin, a message travels to the liver making the liver convert some of itsstored glycogen into glucose. The nature of this message travelling to theliver is still unknown. Five minutes after the message is received, the sugarlevel in the blood steadily starts to increase.196

Unquestionably the animal's being equipped with a system that en-tirely changes its metabolism to meet all of its needs just when it is requiredcan only be possible through the flawless plan of the All-Mighty Creator. Nocoincidence can generate such a perfect and complex system.

AlbatrossesMigratory birds

minimise energy con-sumption by using different

"flight techniques". Albatrosses arealso observed to have such a flight

style. These birds, which spend 92% oftheir lives on the sea, have wing spans of up to 3,5 me-

ters. The most important characteristic of albatrosses istheir flight style: they can fly for hours without beating their

wings at all. To do so, they glide along in the air keeping their wings con-stant by making use of the wind.

It requires a great deal of energy to keep wings with a wing span of 3.5meters constantly open. Albatrosses, however, can stay in this position forhours. This is due to the special anatomical system they are bestowed withfrom the moment of their birth. During flight, the wings of the albatross areblocked. Therefore, it does not need to use any muscular power. Wings arelifted only by muscle layers. This greatly helps the bird during its flight. Thissystem reduces the energy consumed by the bird during flight. The albatrossdoes not use energy because it does not beat its wings or waste energy to

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keep its wings outstretched. Flying for hours by making exclusive use ofwind provides an unlimited energy source for it. For instance, a 10-kilo-al-batross loses only 1% of its body weight while it travels for 1,000 kms. This isindeed a very small rate. Men have manufactured gliders taking albatrossesas a model and by making use of their fascinating flight technique.197

An Arduous MigrationPacific salmon have the exceptional characteristic of returning to the

rivers in which they hatched to reproduce. Having spent part of their lives inthe sea, these animals come back to fresh water to reproduce.

When they start their journey in early summer, the colour of the fish isbright red. At the end of their journey, however, their colour turns black. Atthe outset of their migration, they first draw near to the shore and try toreach rivers. They perseveringly strive to go back to their birthplace. Theyreach the place where they hatched by leaping over turbulent rivers, swim-ming upstream, surmounting waterfalls and dykes. At the end of this 3,500-4,000 km. journey, female salmon readily have eggs just as male salmonshave sperm. Havingreached the place wherethey hatched, femalesalmon lay around 3 to 5thousand eggs as malesalmon fertilise them. Thefish suffer much damage asa result of this migrationand hatching period. Fe-males that lay eggs becomeexhausted; their tail fins areworn down and their skinstarts to turn black. Thesame is true also for males.The river soon overflowswith dead salmon. Yet an-other salmon generation isready to hatch out andmake the same journey.


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The Fact of Cre a tion 231

How salmon complete such a journey, how they reach the sea after theyhatch, and how they find their way are just some of the questions that re-main to be answered. Although many suggestions are made, no definite so-lution has yet been reached. What is the power that makes salmonundertake a return of thousands of kilometres back to a place unknown tothem? It is obvious that there is a superior Will ruling over and controllingall these living beings. It is Allah, the Sustainer of all the worlds.

KoalasThe oil found in eucalyptus

leaves is poisonous to many mam-mals. This poison is a chemical de-fence mechanism used by eucalyptustrees against their enemies. Yet thereis a very special living being that getsthe better of this mechanism andfeeds on poisonous eucalyptusleaves: a marsupial called the koala.Koalas make their homes in eucalyp-tus trees while they also feed on themand obtain their water from them.

Like other mammals, koalas alsocannot digest the cellulose present inthe trees. For this, it is dependent oncellulose-digesting micro-organisms.These micro-organisms are heavily populated in the convergence point ofsmall and large intestines, the caecum which is the rear extension of the in-testinal system. The caecum is the most interesting part of the digestion sys-tem of the koala. This segment functions as a fermentation chamber wheremicrobes are made to digest cellulose while the passage of the leaves is de-layed. Thus, the koala can neutralise the poisonous effect of the oils in theeucalyptus leaves.198

Hunting Ability in Constant PositionThe South African sundew plant entraps insects with its viscous hairs.

The leaves of this plant are full of long, red hairs. The tips of these hairs are

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cov-ered with a fluid that has a smell that attracts insects. Another feature of thefluid is its being extremely viscous. An insect that makes its way to thesource of the smell gets stuck in these viscous hairs. Shortly afterwards thewhole leaf is closed down on the insect that is already entangled in the hairsand the plant extracts the protein essential for itself from the insect by di-gesting it.199

The endowment of a plant with no possibility of moving from its placewith such a faculty is no doubt the evident sign of a special creation. It is im-possible for a plant to have developed such a hunting style out of its ownconsciousness or will, or by way of coincidence. So, it is all the more impos-sible to overlook the existence and might of the Creator Who has furnished itwith this ability.

The Creation Miracles in Bird FeathersAt first glance, bird feathers seem to have a very simple structure.

When we study them closer, however, we come across the very complexstructure of feathers that are light yet extremely strong and waterproof.

Birds should be as light as possible in order to fly easily. The feathers aremade up of keratin proteins keeping with this need. On both sides of the shaftof a feather are vanes and each vane is made up of around 400 tiny barbs.Each of these 400 barbs has a total of tinier 800 barbs, called barbules. Te 800barbules which are crowded on a small bird feather, have another 20 littlehooks, or barbicels, on each of them. These barbicels interlock the barbules.


Left: An open Sun dew. Right: A closed one.

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On first examination, bird feathers don’t appear to contain that many features. Wheninspected more carefully, however, feathers— which are light but strong and imper-meable to water—are seen to have a highly complex structure.In order to be able to fly, birds must weigh as little as possible. In line with that re-quirement, feathers consist of keratin proteins. On both sides of each shaft of thefeather are some 400 side branches, or barbs, each with approximately 800 tinyhooks, or barbules. On each of these 800 bar-bules are 20 smaller hooked filaments, calledbarbicels, that hold the parallel barbules to-gether, like zippers connecting two piecesof cloth. There are approximately 300million hooks in any single feather;and the total number of hooks in allthe feathers on any one bird isapproximately 700 billion.The complex structure ofbarbs and hooks thatlock a feather togetherserves a most impor-tant function. Feathersneed to be closelybound together inorder not to becomeseparated, frayedand useless whenthe bird flies.Thanks to thismechanism, eachfeather is boundtogether soclosely that nei-ther strongwinds nor raincan break up itscontinuous sur-face.The down-feathersare not the same asthose on the wings and tail.The very large tail feathersserve as rudders and brakes.Meanwhile, the wingfeathers increase surfacearea and thus, lift by open-ing up when the wing flapsdown.

The Extraordinary Structure of the Bird Feathers

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The total number of barbicels in all the feathers of a bird is around 700 billion. There is a very significant reason for the bird feather being firmly inter-

locked with each other with barbs and hooks. The feathers should holdtightly on the bird so as not to fall out in any movement whatsoever. Withthe mechanism made up of barbs and hooks, the feathers hold so tightly onthe bird that neither strong wind, nor rain, nor snow cause them to fall out.

Furthermore, the down-feathers are not the same as the feathers in itswings and tail. The tail is made up of relatively big feathers to function asrudder and brakes; wing feathers are created so as to expand the area sur-face during the bird's wing beating and thus increase the lifting force.

Basilisk: The Expert of Walking on WaterFew animals are able to walk on the surface of water. One such rarity is

basilisk, which lives in Central America and is seen below. On the sides ofthe toes of basilisk's hind feet are flaps that enable them to splash water.These are rolled up when the animal walks on land. If the animal faces dan-ger, it starts to run very fast on the surface of a river or a lake. Then the flapson its hind feet are opened and thus more surface area is provided for it torun on water.200

This unique structure of basilisk is one of the evident signs of Allah’sperfect Creation.


The bas i liskliz ard is oneof those rarean i mals thatcan move es tab lish inga bal ancebe tween wa -ter and air.

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The Fact of Creation

PhotosynthesisPlants unquestionably play a major role in making the universe a habit-

able place. They clean the air for us, keep the temperature of the planet at aconstant level, and balance the proportions of gases in the atmosphere. Theoxygen in the air we breathe is produced by plants. An important part of ourfood is also provided by plants. The nutritional value of plants comes fromthe special organization in their cells to which they also owe their other fea-tures.

The plant cell, unlike human and animal cells, can make direct use ofsolar energy. It converts the solar energy into chemical energy and stores itin nutrients in very special ways. This process is called "photosynthesis". Infact, this process is carried out not by the cell but by chloroplasts, organellesthat give plants their green colour. These tiny green organelles only observ-able by microscope are the only laboratories on earth that are capable of stor-ing solar energy in organic matter.



carbon dioxide



In the microscopic factories of plants, a miraculous transformation takes place.With the energy from the Sun, they perform photosynthesis, which in turn suppliesthe energy needs of animals and eventually, human beings.

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The amount of matter produced by plants on the earth is around 200billion tons a year. This production is vital to all living things on the earth.The production made by plants is realised through a very complicatedchemical process. Thousands of "chlorophyll" pigments found in the chloro-plast react to light in an enormously short time, something like one thou-sandth of a second. This is why many activities taking place in thechlorophyll have still not been observed.

Converting solar energy into electrical or chemical energy is a very re-cent technological breakthrough. In order to do this, high-tech instruments

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The Fact of Creation

are used. A plant cell so small as to be invisible to the naked human eye hasbeen performing this task for millions of years.

This perfect system displays Creation once more for all to see. The verycomplex system of photosynthesis is a mechanism that Allah creates. Amatchless factory is squeezed in a minuscule unit area in the leaves. Thisflawless system is only one of the signs revealing that Allah, the Sustainer ofall worlds, creates all living things.


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The chapter you are now about

to read reveals a crucial secret of

your life. You should read it very

attentively and thoroughly, for it is

concerned with a subject that is

liable to make a fundamental

change in your outlook upon the

external world. The subject of this

chapter is not just a point of view,

a different approach, or a tradition-

al philosophical thought: it is a fact

which everyone, believing or unbe-

lieving, must admit and which is

also proven by science today.


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The Secret Beyond Matter is Not Wahdatul Wujood

The topic called "The Real Essence of Matter" has been criticized bysome people. Having misunderstood the essence of the subject,these people claim that what is explained as the secret beyond mat-

ter is identical to the teaching of Wahdatul Wujood. Let us state, before allelse, that the author of this book is a believer strictly abiding by the doc-trine of Ahlus Sunnah and does not defend the view of Wahdatul Wujood.

However, it should also be remembered that Wahdatul Wujood wasdefended by some leading Islamic scholars including Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi. It is true that numerous significant Islamic scholars who describedthe concept of Wahdatul Wujood in the past did so by considering somesubjects found in these books. Still, what is explained in these books is notthe same as Wahdatul Wujood.

Some of those who defended the view of Wahdatul Wujood wereengrossed by some erroneous opinions and made some claims contrary tothe Qur'an and the doctrine of Ahlus Sunnah. They, for example, com-pletely rejected the creation of Allah. When the subject of the secretbeyond matter is told, however, there is definitely no such claim. This sec-tion explains that all beings are created by Allah, and that the originals ofthese beings are seen by Him whereas people merely see the images ofthese beings formed in their brains.

Mountains, plains, flowers, people, seas-briefly everything we seeand everything that Allah informs us in the Qur'an that exists and that Hecreated out of nothing is created and does indeed exist. However, peoplecannot see, feel or hear the real nature of these beings through their senseorgans. What they see and feel are only the copies that appear in theirbrains. This is a scientific fact taught at all schools primarily in medicine.The same applies to the article you are reading now; you can not see nor

The Real Essence of




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touch the real nature of it. The light coming from the original article is con-verted by some cells in your eyes into electrical signals, which are thenconveyed to the sight center in the back of your brain. This is where theview of this article is created. In other words, you are not reading an articlewhich is before your eyes through your eyes; in fact, this article is createdin the sight center in the back of your brain. The article you are readingright now is a "copy of the article" within your brain. The original article isseen by Allah.

In conclusion, the fact that the matter is an illusion formed in ourbrains does not "reject" the matter, but provides us information about thereal nature of the matter: that no person can have connection with its original.

There Is Matter Outside of Us, But We Cannot Reach It… [S]aying that matter is an illusion does not mean it does not exist.

Quiet the contrary: whether we perceive the physical world or not, it doesexist. But we see it as a copy in our brain or, in other words, as an interpre-tation of our senses. For us, therefore, the physical world of matter is anillusion.

The matter outside is seen not just by us, but by other beings too. Theangels Allah delegated to be watchers witness this world as well:

And the two recording angels are recording, sitting on the right and on theleft. He does not utter a single word, without a watcher by him, pen inhand! (Surah Qaf: 17-18)

Most importantly, Allah sees everything. He created this world withall its details and sees it in all its states. As He informs us in the Qur'an:

… Heed Allah and know that Allah sees what you do. (Surat al-Baqara: 233)Say: "Allah is a sufficient witness between me and you. He is certainlyaware of and sees His servants." (Surat al-Isra': 96)

It must not be forgotten that Allah keeps the records of everything inthe book called Lawh Mahfuz (Preserved Tablet). Even if we don't see allthings, they are in the Lawh Mahfuz. Allah reveals that He keeps every-thing's record in the "Mother of the Book" called Lawh Mahfuz with thefollowing verses:

It is in the Source Book with Us, high-exalted, full of wisdom. (Surat az-Zukhruf: 4)… We possess an all-preserving Book. (Surah Qaf: 4)

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241The Real Essence of Matter

Certainly there is no hidden thing in either heaven or Earth which is not ina Clear Book. (Surat an-Naml: 75)

Knowing the Real Essence of Matter People who contemplate their surroundings conscientiously and

wisely realise that everything in the universe—both living and non-liv-ing—must have been created. So the question now is "Who is the creator ofall these things?"

It is evident that "the fact of creation", which reveals itself in everyaspect of the universe, cannot be an outcome of the universe itself. Forexample, a bug could not have created itself. The solar system could nothave created or organised itself. Neither plants, humans, bacteria, erythro-cytes (red-blood corpuscles), nor butterflies could have created themselves.The possibility that these could all have originated "by chance" is not evenimaginable.

We therefore arrive at the following conclusion: Everything that we seehas been created. But none of the things that we see can be "creators" them-selves. The Creator is different from and superior to all that we see withour eyes, a superior power, invisible but Whose existence and attrib-utes are revealed in everything that exists.

This is the point at which those who deny the exis-tence of Allah demur. They are conditioned not tobelieve in His existence unless they see Himwith their own eyes. They may disregard thefact of "creation", but they cannot ignorethe actuality of "creation" manifestedall throughout the universe and findthemselves forced to prove —falsely—that the universeand the living things init have not been creat-ed. Evolutionary the-ory is a key exampleof their vainendeavours to thisend.

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The basic mistake of those who deny Allah is shared by many peoplewho in fact do not really deny the existence of Allah but have a wrong per-ception of Him. These people, who make up the majority of the society insome countries, do not openly deny creation, but have superstitious beliefsabout "where" Allah is. Most of them think that Allah is "up in the sky."They falsely imagine that Allah is behind a very distant planet and inter-feres with "worldly affairs" once in a while. Or perhaps that He does notintervene at all: He created the universe and then left it to itself and peopleare left to determine their fates for themselves. (Surely Allah is beyond that.)

Still others know the fact that Allah is "everywhere" as revealed in theQur'an, but they cannot perceive exactly what this means. They think thatAllah surrounds everything like radio waves or like an invisible, intangiblegas. (Surely Allah is beyond that.)

However, this notion and other beliefs that are unable to make clear"where" Allah is (and maybe unwisely deny His evident existence becauseof that) are all based on a common mistake. They hold a prejudice withoutany grounds and then are moved to wrong opinions of Allah. What is thisprejudice?

This prejudice is about the nature and characteristics of matter. Somepeople are so conditioned to suppositions about the real essence of matterthat they may have never thought about it thoroughly. Modern sciencedemolishes the prejudice about the nature of matter and discloses a veryimportant and imposing reality. In the following pages, we will try toexplain this great reality to which the Qur'an points.

The World of Electrical SignalsAll the information that we have about the world we live in is con-

veyed to us by our five senses. The world we know of consists of what oureye sees, our hand feels, our nose smells, our tongue tastes, and our earhears. We never think that the "external" world can be other than what oursenses present to us, as we have been dependent only on those senses sincethe day of our birth.

Modern research in many different fields of science, however, points toa very different understanding and creates serious doubt about our sensesand the world that we perceive with them.

The starting-point of this approach is that the notion of an "externalworld" shaped in our brain is only a response created in our brain by electri-

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243The Real Essence of Matter

cal signals. The only information you have about the redness of the apple,the hardness of the wood, -even, your mother, your father, your family, andeverything that you own, your house, your job, and the lines of this book,are comprised only of electrical signals. In other words, we can never knowthe true color of the apple in the outside world, nor the true structure ofwood there, nor the real appearance of our parents and the ones we love.They all exist in the outside world as Allah's creations, but we can only havedirect experience of the copies in our brains for so long as we live.

In order to clarify the subject, let us consider our sense of sight, whichprovides us with the most extensive information about the external world.

How Do We See, Hear, and Taste?The act of seeing is realised in a very progressive way. Light clusters

(photons) that travel from the object to the eye pass through the lens in frontof the eye where they are broken up and fall in reverse on the retina at theback of the eye. Here, the impinging light is turned into electrical signalsthat are transmitted by neurons to a tiny spot called the centre of vision inthe back part of the brain. This electrical signal is perceived as an image inthis centre in the brain after a series of processes. The act of seeing actuallytakes place in this tiny spot at the posterior part of the brain, which is pitch-dark and completely insulated from light.

Now, let us reconsider this seemingly ordinary and unremarkable

Stimulations com-ing from an objectare converted intoelectrical signalsand cause aneffect in the brain.When we "see", wein fact view theeffects of theseelectrical signalsin our mind.

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process. When we say that "we see", we are in fact seeing the effects of theimpulses reaching our eye and induced in our brain after they are trans-formed into electrical signals. That is, when we say that "we see", we areactually observing electrical signals in our mind.

All the images we view in our lives are formed in our centre of vision,which makes up only a few cubic centimetres of the volume of the brain. Boththe book you are now reading and the boundless landscape you see whenyou gaze at the horizon fit into this tiny space. Another point that has to bekept in mind is that, as we have noted before, the brain is insulated fromlight; its inside is absolutely dark. The brain has no contact with light itself,which exists outside.

We can explain this interesting situation with an example. Let us sup-pose that there is a burning candle in front of us. We can sit across from thiscandle and watch it at length. However, during this period of time, ourbrain never has any direct contact with the candle's original light. Even aswe see the light of the candle, the inside of our brain is pitch dark. We watcha colourful and bright world inside our dark brain.

R.L. Gregory gives the following explanation of the miraculous aspectof seeing, an action that we take so very much for granted:

We are so familiar with seeing, that it takes a leap of imagination to realisethat there are problems to be solved. But consider it. We are given tiny dis-torted upside-down images in the eyes, and we see separate solid objects insurrounding space. From the patterns of simulation on the retinas we per-ceive the world of objects, and this is nothing short of a miracle.201

The same situation applies to all our other senses. Sound, touch, tasteand smell are all transmitted to the brain as electrical signals and are per-ceived in the relevant centres in the brain.

The sense of hearing functions in the same manner. The outer ear picksup available sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middle ear; themiddle ear transmits the sound vibrations to the inner ear by intensifyingthem; the inner ear sends these vibrations to the brain by translating theminto electrical signals. Just as with the eye, the act of hearing finalises in thecentre of hearing in the brain. The brain is insulated from sound just as it isfrom light. Therefore, no matter how noisy it is outside, the inside of thebrain is completely silent.

Nevertheless, even the subtlest sounds are perceived in the brain. Theprecision of this process is such that the ear of a healthy person hears every-

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245The Real Essence of Matter

thing without any atmospheric noise or interference. In your brain, which is

insulated from sound, you listen to the symphonies of an orchestra, hear all

the noises in a crowded place, and perceive all the sounds within a wide fre-

quency band ranging from the rustling of a leaf to the roar of a jet plane.

Bundles of light coming from an object fall on the retina upside-down.Here, the image is converted into electrical signals and transmitted to thecentre of vision at the back of the brain. Since the brain is insulated fromlight, it is impossible for light to reach this centre. This means that we viewa vast world of light and depth in a tiny spot which receives no light what-soever.

Even at the moment when we see the light and feel the heat of a fire, theinside of our brain is pitch dark and its temperature never changes.

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However, if the sound level in yourbrain were to be measured by a sensi-tive device at that moment, it would beseen that complete silence prevailsthere.

Our perception of odour forms ina similar way. Volatile molecules emit-ted by things such vanilla or a rosereach the receptors in the delicate hairsin the epithelium region of the noseand become involved in an interaction.This interaction is transmitted to thebrain as electrical signals and per-ceived as smell. Everything that wesmell, be it nice or bad, is nothing but the brain's perceiving of the interac-tions of volatile molecules after they have been transformed into electricalsignals. You perceive the scent of a perfume, a flower, a food that you like,the sea, or other odours you like or dislike in your brain. The moleculesthemselves never reach the brain. Just as with sound and vision, what reach-es your brain is simply electrical signals. In other words, all the odours thatyou have assumed to belong to external objects since you were born are justelectrical signals that you feel through your sense organs. You can neverhave direct experience of the true nature of a scent in the outside world.

Similarly, there are four different types of chemical receptors in thefront part of a human being's tongue. These register salty, sweet, sour, andbitter tastes. Our taste receptors transform these perceptions into electricalsignals after a chain of chemical processes and transmit them to the brain.These signals are perceived as taste by the brain. The taste you get when youeat a chocolate bar or a fruit that you like is the interpretation of electricalsignals by the brain. You can never reach the object on the outside; you cannever see, smell or taste the chocolate itself. For instance, if taste nerves thattravel to your brain are cut, nothing you eat at that moment will impingeupon your brain; you will completely lose your sense of taste.

And here is another interesting fact: We can never be sure that what wefeel when we taste a food and what another person feels when he tastes thesame food, or what we perceive when we hear a voice and what anotherperson perceives when he hears the same voice are the same. On this point,

We perceive a perfume, a flower, foodwe enjoy, the smell of the sea and allother smells we like or dislike in our


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247The Real Essence of Matter

Lincoln Barnett says that no one can know that another person perceives thecolour red or hears the C note the same way as he himself does.202

Our sense of touch is no different than the others. When we touch anobject, all information that will help us recognise the external world andobjects are transmitted to the brain by the sense nerves on the skin. The feel-ing of touch is formed in our brain. Contrary to general belief, the placewhere we perceive the sense of touch is not at our finger tips or skin but atthe relevant centre in our brain. As a result of the brain's assessment of elec-trical stimulations coming from objects to it, we sense different propertiesthese objects such as hardness or softness, or heat or cold. We derive alldetails that help us recognise an object from these stimulations. Two famousphilosophers, B. Russell and L. Wittgeinstein, have this to say:

For instance, whether a lemon truly exists or not and how it came to existcannot be questioned and investigated. A lemon consists merely of a tastesensed by the tongue, an odour sensed by the nose, a colour and shapesensed by the eye; and only these features of it can be subject to examinationand assessment. Science can never know the physical world.203

It is impossible for us to reach the original physical world. All objectsaround us are apprehended through one or more means of perception suchas seeing, hearing, and touching. By processing the data in the centre ofvision and in other sensory centres, our brain, throughout our lives, con-fronts not the "original" of the matter existing outside us but rather thecopy formed inside our brain. We can never know what the original formsof these copies are like.

"The External World" Inside Our BrainAs a result of our scientific investigation of the physical facts described

so far, we may conclude the following: we can never have direct experienceof the original of anything we see, touch, hear, and perceive as matter, "theworld" or "the universe." We merely know their copies in our brain.

Someone eating a fruit in fact is aware not of the actual fruit itself but ofa 'picture' of it in the brain. The object considered to be a "fruit" actually con-sists of an electrical impression in the brain which includes the shape, taste,smell, and texture of the fruit. If the sight nerve travelling to the brain wereto be severed suddenly, the image of the fruit would suddenly disappear.Similarly a disconnection in the nerve travelling from the sensors in the noseto the brain would completely destroy the sense of smell. Simply put, the

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fruit is nothing but the interpretation of electrical signals by the brain. Another point to be considered is the sense of distance. Take, for

example, the distance between you and this book. It is only a feeling ofemptiness formed in your brain. Objects that seem to be distant to thehuman being likewise exist in the brain. For instance, someone who watch-es the stars in the sky assumes that they are millions of light-years awayfrom him. Yet what he "sees" are really the stars inside himself, in his centreof vision. While you read these lines, you are, in fact, not inside the roomyou assume you are in; on the contrary, the room is inside you. Your seeingyour body makes you think that you are inside it. However, you mustremember that you have never seen your original body, either; you havealways seen a copy of it formed inside your brain.

The same applies to all your other perceptions. For instance, when youthink that you hear the sound of the television in the next room, you areactually experiencing the sound inside your brain. Both the sound youimagine to be coming from metres away and the conversation of a personright next to you are perceived in a centre of hearing measuring a few cubic

All the things we see in ourlives are formed in a part of ourbrain called the "vision center",which is only a few cubic cen-timetres in size. Both the bookyou are now reading and theboundless landscape you seewhen you gaze at the horizon fitinto this tiny space. That is tosay that when we look at

objects, it is the interpre-tation of our brain whichgives an idea of their sizesince, for obvious pysicalreasons, the imagesformed of them in thecentre of vision cannotbe on the same scale asthe objects themselves.

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centimetres inside your brain. Within this centre of perception, no conceptsuch as right, left, front or behind exists. That is, sound does not come to youfrom the right, from the left or from the air; there is no direction fromwhich the sound comes.

The same is true of odour. Just as a rose will appear as an image in thecentre of vision, so will its fragrance be sensed in the centre of smell.Whether the source of the odour is near or far, and whether the odour issour, sweet, acrid, pleasant, etc. are likewise matters for the brain to inter-pret.

The "external world" presented to us by our perceptions is merely acollection of the electrical signals reaching our brain. Throughout our lives,these signals are processed by our brain and we proceed without recognis-ing that we are mistaken in assuming that these are the "original" versions ofmatter existing in the external world. We are misled because we can neverdirectly reach matter itself by means of our senses.

Moreover, it is again our brain that interprets and attributes meaningto the signals about the "external world" and we assume to be dealing withits original. For example, let us consider the sense of hearing. It is in fact ourbrain that transforms thesound waves in the"external world" into asymphony. That is to say,we know music as inter-preted by our brain, notthe original music thatexists outside. In thesame manner, when wesee colours, what reachesour eyes are merely elec-trical signals of differentwavelengths. It is againour brain that transformsthese signals into colours.The colours in the"external world" areunknown to us. We cannever have direct experi-

We see everything around us ascoloured inside the darkness of ourbrains, just as this garden lookscoloured from the window of a dark-ened room.

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ence of the true red of an apple, the true blue of the sky or the true green oftrees. The external world depends entirely on the perceiver.

Even a slightest defect in the retina of the eye causes colour blindness.Some people perceive blue as green, and some red as blue. In these cases, itdoes not matter whether the object outside is coloured or not.

The World of Senses Can Occur Without

Outside World's ExistenceOne factor which reveals that everything we see and experience exists

in our brain and that we can never know the original of the matter thatexists outside is that we do not need an outside world for senses to occur inthe brain. Many technological developments such as simulators and alsodreams are the most important evidences of this truth.

Science writer, Rita Carter, states in her book, Mapping The Mind, that"there's no need for eyes to see" and describes at length an experiment car-ried out by scientists. In the experiment, blind patients were fitted with a

As a result of artificial stimulations, a physical world as true and realistic as the realone can be formed in our brain. As a result of artificial stimulations, a person maythink that he is driving in his car, while he is actually sitting in his home.

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device that transformed video pictures into vibrating pulses. A cameramounted next to the subjects' eyes spread the pulses over their backs so theyhad continuous sensory input from the visual world. The patients started tobehave as if they could really see, after a while. For example, there was azoom lens in one of the devices so as to move closer the image. When thezoom is operated without informing the patient beforehand, the patient hadan urge to protect himself with two arms because the image on the subject'sback expanded suddenly as though the world was looming in.204

As it is seen from this experiment, we can form sensations even whenthey are not caused by material equivalents in the outside world. All stimulican be created artificially.

"The World of Senses" that We Experience in DreamsA person can experience all senses vividly without the presence of the

outside world. The most obvious example of this is dreams. A person lies onhis bed with closed eyes while dreaming. However, in spite of this, that per-son senses many things which he or she experiences in real life, and experi-ences them so realistically that the dreams are indistinguishable from thereal life experience. Everyone who reads this book will often bear witness tothis truth in their own dreams. For example, a person lying down alone on abed in a calm and quiet atmosphere at night might, in his dream, see himselfin danger in a very crowded place. He could experience the event as if itwere real, fleeing from danger in desperation and hiding behind a wall.Moreover, the images in his dreams are so realistic that he feels fear andpanic as if he really was in danger. He has his heart in his mouth with everynoise, is shaken with fear, his heart beats fast, he sweats and demonstratesthe other physical affects that the human body undergoes in a dangeroussituation.

A person who falls from a high place in his dream feels it with all hisbody, even though he is lying in bed without moving. Alternatively, onemight see oneself slipping into a puddle, getting soaked and feeling coldbecause of a cold wind. However, in such a case, there is neither a puddle,nor is there wind. Furthermore, despite sleeping in a very hot room, oneexperiences the wetness and the cold, as if one were awake.

Someone who believes he is dealing with the original of the materialworld in his dream can be very sure of himself. He can put his hand on his

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friend's shoulder when the friend tells him that "it isn't possible to deal with

the original of the world", and then ask "Don't you feel my hand on your

shoulder? If so, how can you say that you don't see the original matter?

What makes you think in this way? Let's take a trip up the Bosphorus; we

can have a chat about it and you'll explain to me why you believe this." The

dream that he sees in his deep sleep is so clear that he turns on the engine


In your dreams you can "touchwith your hand and see withyour eye", but in reality, youhave neither hand nor eye, noris there anything that can betouched or seen. There is nomaterial reality in your dreamthat makes these things hap-pen except your brain. You areliving in an illusory world.What is it that separates reallife and dreams from oneanother? Ultimately, bothaspects of life are experienced

within the brain. If we are able to live easily in an unreal world during ourdreams, a similar state of affairs can be equally true of the world we live in.When we wake up from a dream, there is no logical reason for not thinkingthat we have entered a longer dream that we call "real life". The reason weconsider our dream to be fancy and the world as real is nothing but a productof our habits and prejudices. This suggests that we may well be awoken fromthe life on earth which we think we are living right now, just as we are awokenfrom a dream.

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with pleasure and accelerates slowly, almost jumping the car by pressingthe pedal suddenly. While going on the road, trees and road lines seem solidbecause of the speed. In addition, he breathes clean Bosphorus air. But sup-pose he is woken up by his ringing alarm clock just when he's getting readyto tell his friend that what he's seeing is the original matter. Wouldn't heobject in the same manner regardless of whether he was asleep or awake?

When people wake up they understand that what they've seen untilthat moment is a dream. But for some reason they are not suspicious aboutthe real nature of the life that starts with a "waking" image (what they call"real life") can also be a dream. However, the way we perceive images in"real life" is exactly the same as the way we perceive our dreams. We seeboth of them in the mind. We cannot understand they are images until weare woken up. Only then do we say "what I have just seen was a dream". So,how can we prove that what we see at any given moment is not a dream?We could be assuming that the moment in which we are living is real justbecause we haven't yet woken up. It is possible that we will discover thisfact when we are woken up from this "waking dream" which takes longerthan dreams we see everyday. We do not have any evidence that provesotherwise.

Many Islamic scholars have also proclaimed that the life around us isonly a dream, and that only when we are awakened from that dream with "abig awakening", will people be able to understand that they live in a dream-like world. A great Islamic scholar, Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi, referred to asSheikh Akbar (The greatest Sheikh) due to his superior knowledge, likensthe world to our dreams by quoting a saying of the Prophet Muhammad(may Allah bless him and grant him peace):

The Prophet Muhammad [may Allah bless him and grant him peace] saidthat "people are asleep and wake up when they die." This is to say that theobjects seen in the world when alive are similar to those seen when asleepwhile dreaming...205

In a verse of the Qur'an, people are told to say on doomsday when theyare resurrected from the dead:

They will say, "Alas for us! Who has raised us from our sleeping-place?This is what the All-Merciful promised us. The Messengers were tellingthe truth." (Surah Ya Sin: 52)

As the verse demonstrates, people wake up on doomsday as if waking

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from a dream. Like someone woken from the middle of a dream in deepsleep, such people will similarly ask who has woken them up. As the versepoints out, the world around us is like a dream and everybody will bewoken up from this dream, and will begin to see images of the afterlife,which is the real life.

Who is the Perceiver?As we have explained so far, we can never have experience of the orig-

inal of the material world we think we are inhabiting and that we call the"external world." However, here arises the question of primary importance.If we cannot reach the original of any of the material existence that we knowof, what about our brain? Since our brain is a part of the physical world justlike our arm, leg, or any other object, we cannot reach its original either.

When the brain is analysed, it is seen that there is nothing in it but lipidand protein molecules, which also exist in other living organisms. This

The findings of modern physics show thatthe universe is a collection of perceptions.The following question appears on the coverof the well-known American science maga-zine New Scientist which dealt with this factin its 30 January 1999 issue: "Beyond Reali-ty: Is the Universe Really a Frolic of PrimalInformation and Matter Just a Mirage?"

An article titled “The Hollow Universe”, pub-lished in the 27 April, 2002, edition of New Sci-entist, said: “You're holding a magazine. Itfeels solid; it seems to have some kind ofindependent existence in space. Ditto theobjects around you -perhaps a cup of coffee,a computer. They all seem real and out theresomewhere. But it's all an illusion. Those sup-posedly solid objects are mere projections,emanating from a shifting kaleidoscopic pat-tern living on the boundary of our Universe.”

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means that within the piece of meat we call our "brain", there is nothing toobserve the images, to constitute consciousness, or to form the being we call"myself".

R.L. Gregory refers to a mistake people make in relation to the percep-tion of images in the brain:

There is a temptation, which must be avoided, to say that the eyes producepictures in the brain. A picture in the brain suggests the need of some kind ofinternal eye to see it - but this would need a further eye to see its picture…and so on in an endless regress of eyes and pictures. This is absurd.206

This is the very point which puts the materialists, who do not holdanything but matter as real, in a quandary. To whom belongs "the eyeinside" that sees, that interprets what it sees and reacts to it?

Karl Pribram also focused on this important question in the world ofscience and philosophy about who the perceiver is:

Philosophers since the Greeks have speculated about the "ghost" in the

machine, the "little man inside the little man" and so on. Where is the I -- the

entity that uses the brain? Who does the actual knowing? Or, as Saint Fran-

cis of Assisi once put it, "What we are looking for is what is looking".207

Now, think of this: The book in your hand, the room you are in, inbrief, all the images in front of you are seen inside your brain. Is it theatoms that see these images? Blind, deaf, unconscious atoms? Why didsome atoms acquire this quality whereas some did not? Do our acts ofthinking, comprehending, remembering, being delighted, being unhappy,

The brain is a heap of cells made up of protein and fat molecules. It is formed of nervecells called neurons. There is no power in this piece of meat to observe the images, toconstitute consciousness, or to create the being we call "myself". The existence ofthe soul can clearly be seen from this.

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and everything else consist of the electrochemical reactions between theseatoms?

When we ponder these questions, we see that there is no sense inlooking for will in atoms. It is clear that the being who sees, hears, andfeels is a supra-material being. This being is "alive" and it is neither matter,nor an image of matter. This being associates with the perceptions in frontof it by using the image of the body.

This being is the "soul".It is the soul that sees, hears, feels, perceives and interprets the copies

in the brain of the matter existing on the outside. The intelligent beingsthat write and read these lines are not each a heap of atoms and molecules-and the chemical reactions between them-but a "soul".

The Real Absolute Being

All these facts bring us face to face with a very significant question.Since we can never know anything about the original of the material worldand since we only have direct experience of replica images in our brains,then what is the source of these images?

So, who makes our soul watch the stars, the earth, the people, ourbody and all else that we see?

It is very evident that there exists a supreme Creator, Who has createdthe entire material universe and Who continues His creation ceaselessly.Since this Creator displays such a magnificent creation, He surely has eter-nal power and might.

This Creator introduces Himself to us. He has sent down a book andthrough this book has described Himself, and the universe and hasexplained the reason for our existence.

This Creator is Allah and the name of His Book is the Qur'an. The fact that the universe, the heavens and the earth, are not stable,

that their presence is only made possible by Allah's creation and that theywill disappear when He ends this creation, is all explained as follows:

It is Allah Who sustains the heavens and the earth, lest they cease (to func-tion): and if they should fail, there is none – not one – who can sustainthem thereafter: Truly, He is Most Forbearing and Oft-Forgiving. (SurahFatir, 41)

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As we mentioned at the beginning, some people have no genuineunderstanding of Allah and so, as a result of terrible ignorance, they imag-ine Him as a being present somewhere in the heavens and not really inter-vening in worldly affairs. (Surely Allah is beyond that.) The basis of this cor-rupt logic actually lies in the mistaken thought that the universe is merelyan assembly of matter and Allah is "outside" this material world, in a far-away place. (Surely Allah is beyond that.)

The only real absolute being is Allah. That means that only Allahexists; matter is not absolute being. The material world on the outside isone of the works of Allah's sublime creation. Allah is surely "everywhere"and encompasses all. This reality is explained in the Qur'an as follows;

Allah! There is no god but He,-the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. Nei-ther slumber nor sleep can overtake Him. His are all things in the heavensand on earth. Who can intercede in His presence except as He permits? Heknows what (appears to His creatures as) before or after or behind them.Nor shall man grasp anything of His knowledge except as He wills. HisThrone extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue inguarding and preserving them, for He is the Most High, and the Supreme(in glory). (Surat al-Baqara, 255)

The facts that Allah is not bound by space and that He encompasseseverything are stated in another verse as follows:

To Allah belong the east and the West: Wherever you turn, there is thepresence of Allah. For Allah is all-Pervading, and all-Knowing. (Surat al-Baqara, 115)

The fullness of faith consists of understanding this truth, avoiding themistake of associating others with Allah and acknowledging Allah as theOne Absolute Being. Someone who knows that, apart from Allah, every-thing is a shadow existence, will say with certain faith (at the level of Haqq-al yakin - truth of certainty) that only Allah exists and there is no other deity(or any being with strength) besides Him.

The materialists do not believe in the existence of Allah, because theycannot see Him with their eyes. But their claims are completely invalidatedwhen they learn the real nature of matter. Someone who learns this truthunderstands that his own existence has the quality of an illusion, and graspsthat a being which is an illusion will not be able to see a being which isabsolute. As it is revealed in the Qur'an, human beings cannot see Allah butAllah sees them.

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Eyesight cannot perceive Him but He perceives eyesight... (Surat al-An'am:103)

Certainly, we human beings cannot see the Being of Allah with oureyes but we know that He completely encompasses our inside, our outside,our views and our thoughts. For this reason, Allah reveals Himself in theQur'an as "controlling hearing and sight" (Surah Yunus: 31) We cannot sayone word, we cannot even take one breath without Allah's knowing it.Therefore, Allah knows everything we do. This is revealed in the Qur'an:

Allah - Him from Whom nothing is hidden, either on earth or in heaven.(Surah Al 'Imran: 5)

As we imagine we have direct experience of the original of matter andwatch the copy world in our brains, as we live our lives in other words, theclosest being to us is Allah Himself. The secret is concealed in this reality: "Itwas We Who created man, and We know what dark suggestions his soulmakes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein." (SurahQaf: 16) Allah has encompassed man and He is "infinitely close" to him.

Allah informs men that He is "infinitely close" to them with the verse:"When My servants ask you concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them)"(Surat al-Baqara, 186). Another verse relates the same fact: "We told youthat your Lord encompasses mankind." (Surat al-Isra, 60).

Man is misled by thinking that the being that is closest to him is him-self. Allah, in truth, is closer to us even more than ourselves. He hasrevealed this fact in the verse "Why do you not intervene when it (the soul)comes up to the throat, under your very eyes. We are nearer to him thanyou, but you do not see it." (Surat al-Waqia, 83-85). As we learn from thisverse, some people live unaware of this phenomenal fact, because they donot see it with their own eyes.

Some people are unaware of this great fact. They accept that Allah cre-ated them, but think that the work they do belongs to them. However, everyaction performed by a human being is created with the permission of Allah.For example, a person who writes a book writes it with the permission ofAllah; every sentence, every idea, and every paragraph is composedbecause Allah wishes it. Allah reveals this very important principle in sev-eral verses; one of these verses is, "... Allah created both you and what youdo?". (Surat as-Saffat: 96) In these words "... when you threw; it was AllahWho threw... ", (Surat al-Anfal: 17) Allah reveals that everything we do is an

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act that belongs to Him. This is the reality. One may not want to concede this; but this does not

change a thing.

Understanding the Reality of Matter Removes

Worldly AmbitionsWhat we have described so far is one of the most profound truths that

you have heard in your whole life. We have shown that the whole materialworld is really a shadow, and that this is the key to understanding the exis-tence of Allah, His creation, and the fact that He is the one absolute Being.At the same time, we have presented a scientifically undeniable demonstra-tion both of how helpless human beings are and a manifestation of Allah'swonderful artistry. This knowledge compels people to belief making itimpossible for them not to believe. This is the main reason why some peo-ple avoid this truth.

The things that are being explained here are as true as a physical law ora chemical formula. When necessary, human beings can solve the most dif-ficult mathematical problems and understand many very complex matters.However, when these same people are informed that matter is an appear-ance formed in the human mind, and that they have no connection with it,they have no desire at all to understand. This is an exaggerated case of aninability to understand, because the idea discussed here is no more difficultthan the answer to the questions, "What is two times two?" or "How old areyou?", If you ask any scientist or professor of neurology where they see theworld, they will answer you that they see it in their brains. You will find thisfact even in high school biology text books. But despite the fact that it isclearly evident, information pertaining to the fact that we perceive the mate-rial world in our brains and the results that this information entails forhuman beings can be overlooked. It is of major significance that one of themost important scientifically proven facts is so carefully hidden from peo-ple's eyes.

The fundamental reason why people easily accept all scientific facts,yet are so afraid to accept this one, is that learning the truth about matterwill basically change the way everyone looks at life. Those who believe thatmatter and the self are absolute beings will discover one day that everythingthey have worked for and protected based on this idea - their spouses, their

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If one ponders deeply on all that is said here, he will soon realise this amaz-ing, extraordinary situation by himself: The world is a sphere created solelyin order to test Man. Throughout their brief lives, people are tested with per-ceptions, which are depicted as particularly decorative and attractive. Butthey can never experience the true, original sources of those perceptions.

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261The Real Essence of Matter

children, their wealth, even their own personalities - is an illusion. Peopleare very afraid of this reality and pretend not to understand it even if theydo. They try with determination to disprove the facts, which are simpleenough for even a primary school child to understand. The reason behindthis opposition is that they are afraid to lose what this world offers.

For someone who is attached to his possessions, his children, or thetransient offerings of this world, the illusory nature of matter is cause forgreat fear. At the moment such a person understands this, he will have diedbefore his natural death, and he will have surrendered his possessions andhis soul. In the verse, "If He did ask you for it (all your wealth) and putyou under pressure, you would be tight-fisted and it would bring outyour malevolence." (Surah Muhammad: 37), Allah reveals how humanbeings will behave with meanness and rancor when He demands their pos-sessions from them.

But when a person learns the real nature of matter, he will understandthat his soul and his possessions already belong to Allah. If he knows thatthere is nothing to give or to resist giving, he will submit himself and all hepossesses to Allah before he dies. For sincere believers, this is a beautifuland honorable thing and a way to draw nearer to Allah. Those who do notbelieve or whose faith is weak cannot recognize this beauty and stubbornlyreject this reality.

The Environment that Will Come to be When the

Real Nature of Matter is not Kept SecretThose who know that they have no connection with the actual material

things, and that they are in the presence only of images that Allah presentsto them, will change their whole way of living, their view of life and theirvalues. This will be a change that will be useful both from the personal andsocial point of view, because someone who sees this truth will live withoutdifficulty according to the high moral qualities that Allah has revealed in theQur'an.

For those who do not regard the world as important and who under-stand that matter is an illusion, it is spiritual things that deserve to be givenimportance. Someone who knows that Allah is listening to him and watch-ing him at every moment, and is aware that he will render an account of hisevery action in the hereafter, will naturally live a morally virtuous life. He

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will be very careful about what Allah has commanded and what He has for-bidden. Everyone in society will be filled with love and respect for oneanother, and everyone will compete with one another in the performance ofgood and noble deeds. People will change the values according to whichthey judge others. Material things will lose their value and therefore, peoplewill be judged not according to their standing and position in society butaccording to their moral character and their piety. No one will pursue thosethings whose source is illusion; everyone will seek after truth. Everyone willact without worrying about what others will think; the only question intheir minds will be whether or not Allah will be pleased with what they do.In the place of the feelings of pride, arrogance and self-satisfaction thatcome from possessions, property, standing and position, there will be asense of the understanding of humility and dependence. Therefore, peoplewill willingly live according to those examples of good moral qualities spo-ken of in the Qur'an. Eventually, these changes will put an end to manyproblems of today's societies.

In place of angry, aggressive people, anxious even about small profit,there will be those who know that everything they see is an image shown byAllah. They will be well aware that reactions of anger and loud shoutingmake them look foolish. Well-being and trust will prevail in individuals andsocieties and everyone will be pleased with his life and possessions. These,then, are some of the blessings that this hidden reality will bring to individ-uals and societies. Knowing, considering and living according to this realitywill bring many more goodnesses to human beings. Those who wish toattain these goodnesses should consider this reality well and endeavor tounderstand it. In one verse, Allah says,

Clear insights have come to you from your Lord. Whoever sees clearly,does so to his own benefit. Whoever is blind, it is to his own detriment...(Surat al-An'am: 104)

Logical Deficiencies of the MaterialistsFrom the beginning of this chapter, we have seen through scientific evi-

dence that matter is not an absolute entity as the materialists claim, and thatwe never have direct experience of the original of the matter that exists out-side us. Materialists resist in an extremely dogmatic manner this evident real-ity which destroys their philosophy and bring forward baseless anti-theses.

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For example, one of thebiggest advocates of thematerialist philosophy in the20th century, an ardent Marx-ist, George Politzer, gave the"bus example" as supposedlya great evidence regardingthis matter. According toPolitzer, philosophers whoespouse the fact that we dealwith the copy of matter in ourbrains also run away whenthey see a bus bearing downon them.208

When another famousmaterialist, Johnson, was toldthat we are never in contactwith the original matter, hetried to deny this truth bygiving stones a kick.209

There are similar exam-ples and ill-considered state-ments such as "You under-stand the real nature of mat-ter when you are slapped inthe face," in the books offamous materialists such as Marx, Engels, Lenin, and others.

The point where materialists are mistaken is that they think the con-cept of "perception" only applies to the sense of sight. In fact, all sensations,such as touch, contact, hardness, pain, heat, cold and wetness also form inthe human brain, in precisely the same way that visual images are formed.For instance, someone who feels the cold metal of the door as he gets off abus, actually "feels the cold metal" in his brain. This is a clear and well-known truth. As we have already seen, the sense of touch forms in a partic-ular section of the brain, through nerve signals from the fingertips, forinstance. It is not your fingers that do the feeling. People accept this becauseit has been demonstrated scientifically. However, when it comes to the bush*tting someone, not just to his feeling the metal of the indoor-in other

Some people accept that when they touch abus, they feel the cold metal in their brains. On

the other hand, they do not accept that thefeeling of pain at the moment the bus hits them

forms in the brain. However, a person will feelthe same pain if he sees himself falling under a

bus in his dream.

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words when the sensation of touch is more violent and painful-they thinkthat this fact somehow no longer applies. However, pain or heavy blows arealso perceived in the brain. Someone who is hit by a bus feels all the violenceand pain of the event in his brain.

In order to understand this better, it will be useful to consider ourdreams. A person may dream of being hit by a bus, of opening his eyes inhospital later, being taken for an operation, the doctors talking, his family'sanxious arrival at the hospital, and that he is crippled or suffers terriblepain. In his dream, he perceives all the images, sounds, feelings of hardness,pain, light, the colors in the hospital, all aspects of the incident in fact, veryclearly and distinctly. They are all as natural and believable as in real life. Atthat moment, if the person who is having that dream were told it was only adream, he would not believe it. Yet all that he is seeing is an illusion, and thebus, hospital and even the body he sees in his dream have no physical coun-terpart in the real world. Although they have no physical counterparts, hestill feels as if a 'real body' has been hit by a 'real bus.'

In the same way, there is no validity to the materialists' objectionsalong the lines of "You realize that the real nature of matter when someonehits you," "You cannot doubt whether you see the original of matter whensomeone kicks your knee," "You run away when you meet a savage dog,""When a bus has hit you, you understand whether it is in your brain or not,"or "In that case, go and stand on the motorway in front of the oncoming traf-fic". A sharp blow, the pain from a dog's teeth or a violent slap are not evi-dence that you are dealing with the matter itself. As we have seen, you canexperience the same things in dreams, with no corresponding physicalcounterparts. Furthermore, the violence of a sensation does not alter the factthat the sensation in question occurs in the brain. This is a clearly proven sci-entific fact.

The reason why some people think that a fast-moving bus on themotorway or an accident caused by that bus are striking proofs of the factthey are dealing with the physical existence of matter is that the image con-cerned is seen and felt as so real that it deceives one. The images aroundthem, for instance the perfect perspective and depth of the motorway, theperfection of the colors, shapes and shadows they contain, the vividness ofsound, smell and hardness, and the completeness of the logic within thatimage can deceive some people. On account of this vividness, some peopleforget that these are actually perceptions. Yet no matter how complete andflawless the perceptions in the mind may be, that does not alter the fact that

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they are still perceptions. If someone is hit by a car while walking along theroad, or is trapped under a house that collapses during an earthquake, or issurrounded by flames during a fire, or trips up and falls down the stairs, hestill experiences all these things in his mind, and is not actually confrontingthe reality of what happens.

When someone falls under a bus, the bus in his mind hits the body inhis mind. The fact that he dies as a result, or that his body is completelyshattered, does not alter this reality. If something a person experiences in hismind ends in death, Allah replaces the images He shows that person withimages belonging to the hereafter. Those who are unable to understand thetruth of this now on honest reflection will certainly do so when they die.

The Example of Connecting the Nerves in ParallelLet us consider the car crash example of Politzer: In this accident, if the

crushed person's nerves travelling from the points of impact to his brain,were connected to another person's, for instance Politzer's brain, with a par-allel connection, at the moment the bus hit that person, it would also hitPolitzer, who was sitting at home at that moment. Better to say, all the feel-ings experienced by that person having the accident would be experiencedby Politzer, just as the same song is listened to from two different loud-speakers connected to the same tape recorder. Politzer would feel, see, andexperience the braking sound of the bus, the impact of the bus on his body,the images of a broken arm and the shedding of blood, fracture aches, theimages of his entering the operation room, the hardness of the plaster cast,and the feebleness of his arm.

Every other person connected to the man's nerves in parallel wouldexperience the accident from beginning to end just like Politzer. If the manin the accident fell into a coma, they would all fall into a coma. Moreover, ifall the perceptions pertaining to the car accident could be recorded by somesophisticated device and if all these perceptions were then transmitted toanother person, the bus would knock him down many times.

So, which one of the buses hitting those people is real? The materialistphilosophy has no consistent answer to this question. The right answer isthat they would all experience the car accident in all its details in their ownminds.

The same principle applies to the cake and stone examples. If thenerves of the sense organs of Engels, who felt the satiety and fullness of the

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cake in his stomach after eating a cake, were connected to a second person'sbrain in parallel, that person would also feel full when Engels ate the cakeand was satiated. If the nerves of Johnson, who felt pain in his foot when hedelivered a sound kick to a stone, were connected to a second person in par-allel, that person would feel the same pain.

So, which cake or which stone is the real one? The materialist philosophyagain falls short of giving a consistent answer to this question. The correct andconsistent answer is this: both Engels and the second person have eaten thecake in their minds and are satiated; both Johnson and the second personhave fully experienced the moment of striking the stone in their minds.

Let us make a change in the example we gave about Politzer: let us con-nect the nerves of the man hit by the bus to Politzer's brain, and the nervesof Politzer sitting in his house to that man's brain, who is hit by the bus. Inthis case, Politzer will think that a bus has hit him, although sitting at home;and the man actually hit by the bus will never feel the impact of the accidentand think that he is sitting in Politzer's house. The very same logic may beapplied to the cake and the stone examples.

As is evident, it is not possible for man to transcend his senses andbreak free of them. In this respect, a man's soul can be subjected to all kindsof representations, although it has no physical body and no material exis-tence and lacks material weight. It is not possible for a person to realise thisbecause he assumes these three-dimensional images to be real and isabsolutely certain of their existence, because everybody depends on the per-ceptions stemming from his sensory organs.

The famous British philosopher David Hume expresses his thoughtson this fact:

For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always

stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade,

love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself at any time without

a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception.210

The Formation of Perceptions in the Brain is not Philosophy but Scientific FactMaterialists claim that what we have been presenting here is a philo-

sophical view. However, to hold that we never have direct experience of theoriginal of the "external world" is not a matter of philosophy but a plain sci-

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267The Real Essence of Matter

entific fact. How images and feelings form in the brain is taught in detail inall medical schools. These facts, proven by 20th-century science, and partic-ularly by physics, clearly show that matter does not have an absolute realityand that everyone in a sense is watching the "monitor in his brain".

Everyone who believes in science, be he an atheist, Buddhist, or of anyother persuasion, has to accept this fact. A materialist might deny the exis-tence of a Creator in his own limited understanding, yet he cannot deny thisscientific reality.

The inability of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Georges Politzer and oth-ers to comprehend such a simple and evident fact still seems startling, evenalthough the level of scientific understanding and range of possibilities oftheir times were less than adequate. In our time, science and technology arehighly advanced and recent discoveries make it easier to comprehend thisfact. Materialists, on the other hand, are stricken with the fear of both com-prehending this fact, albeit partially, and realising how definitively itdemolishes their philosophy.

The Great Fear of the Materialists For quite some time now, materialists have been loudly giving vent to

their fear and panic in their publications, conferences and panel discussions.Their agitated and hopeless discourses imply that they are suffering from asevere intellectual crisis. The scientific collapse of the theory of evolution, theso-called basis of their philosophy, had already come as a great shock tothem. Now, they have come to realise that they are starting to lose matteritself, which is a greater mainstay for them than Darwinism, and the shockthey experience as a result is even greater. They declare that this issue is the"biggest threat" for them, and that it totally "demolishes their cultural fabric".

One of those who expressed in the most outspoken way this anxietyand panic felt by materialist circles was Renan Pekunlu, an academician aswell as contributor to Bilim ve Utopya (Science and Utopia), a periodicalwhich has assumed the task of defending materialism. Both in his articles inBilim ve Utopya and in the panel discussions he has attended, Pekunlu pre-sented the book The Evolution Deceit, the first book in which this subject wasbrought up, as the number one "threat" to materialism. What disturbedPekunlu even more than the chapters that invalidated Darwinism was thepart you are currently reading. To his readers and (only a handful of) audi-

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ence, Pekunlu delivered the message: "Donot let yourselves be carried away by theindoctrination of idealism and keep yourfaith in materialism," and gave Vladimir I.Lenin, the leader of the bloody communistrevolution in Russia, as his reference.Advising everyone to read Lenin's century-old book titled Materialism and Empirio-Crit-icism, all Pekunlu did was to repeat theignorant counsels of Lenin, stating: "Do notthink over this issue, or you will lose track ofmaterialism and be carried away by reli-gion." In an article he wrote in the aforemen-tioned periodical, he quoted the followinglines from Lenin:

Once you deny objective reality, given us insensation, you have already lost everyweapon against fideism, for you haveslipped into agnosticism or subjectivism-and that is all that fideism requires.A single claw ensnared, and the bird is lost. And our Machists have allbecome ensnared in idealism, that is, in a diluted, subtle fideism; they becameensnared from the moment they took "sensation" not as an image of the exter-nal world but as a special "element". It is nobody's sensation, nobody's mind,nobody's spirit, nobody's will.211

These words explicitly demonstrate that the fact which Lenin alarm-ingly realised and wanted to banish both from his own mind and the mindsof his "comrades" also disturbs contemporary materialists in a similar way.However, Pekunlu and other materialists suffer yet a greater distress;because they are aware that this fact is now being put forward in a far moreexplicit, certain and convincing way than 100 years ago. For the first time inworld history, this subject is being explained in a quite irresistible way.

Nevertheless, the general picture is that a great number of materialistscientists still take a very superficial stand against the fact that "we neverhave direct experience of the original of matter." The subject explained inthis chapter is one of the most important and most exciting subjects thatone can ever come across in his life. There is no chance of ever having facedsuch a crucial subject before. Still, the reactions of these scientists and themanner they adopt in their speeches and articles hint at how superficialtheir comprehension is.

Turkish materialist writerRennan Pekunlu says that "the the-

ory of evolution is not so impor-tant, the real threat is this subject,"because he is aware that this sub-ject reveals how the absoluteness

of matter, the only concept inwhich he has faith, is a grave


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269The Real Essence of Matter

Someone who looks out thewindow at the scenery doesnot actually view an imagewhich is outside of him, butrather the image that belongsto the scenery in his brain.

Light that reachesone's eye is convert-ed into electric sig-nals by the cells inthe eye and transmit-ted to the visual cen-tre at the back of thebrain. "A conscious-ness" within our brainreceives the electricsignals that enter thebrain, and perceivesthem as scenery.




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The reactions of some materialists to the subject discussed here show inno uncertain manner that their blind adherence to materialism has causedsome kind of a flaw in their logic and for this reason, they are far removedfrom comprehending the subject. For instance, Alaattin Senel, also an acad-emician and a writer for Bilim ve Utopya, delivered himself of similar mes-sages as Rennan Pekunlu saying: "Forget the collapse of Darwinism, thereally threatening subject is this one," and issued such challenges as "soyou prove what you say," sensing that his own philosophy is groundless.What is more interesting is that this writer himself has shown in his writingsthat he can by no means grasp this fact which he considers to be a menace.

For instance, in an article in which he exclusively discussed this sub-ject, Senel accepts that the external world is perceived in the brain as animage. However, he then goes on to write: "I do not know whether theimages in my brain have correlates in the external world or not, but thesame thing applies when I speak on the phone. When I speak on the tele-phone, I cannot see the person I am speaking to but I can have this conver-sation confirmed when I later see him face to face."212

By saying so, this writer actually means the following: "If we doubt ourperceptions, we can look at matter itself and check its reality." However, thisis an evident misconception, because it is impossible for us to reach matteritself. We can never get out of our minds and know what is "outside".Whether the voice on the phone has a correlate or not can be confirmed bythe person on the phone. However, this confirmation is also a confirmationexperienced by the mind.

As a matter of fact, the same events may be experienced also in dreams.For instance, Senel may also see in his dream that he speaks on the phoneand then have this conversation confirmed by the person to whom he spoke.Or, Pekunlu may in his dream feel as if he is facing "a serious threat" andadvise people to read the century-old books of Lenin. However, no matterwhat they do, these materialists cannot deny the fact that they never experi-ence the original of the events that have happened and the people they havetalked to in their dreams.

Materialists have Fallen into the Biggest Trap in HistoryThe atmosphere of panic sweeping through materialist circles in

Turkey, of which we have mentioned only a few examples, shows thatmaterialists face utter defeat, one which they have never previously suf-

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fered. That we do not have direct experience of the original matter has beenproven by modern science and it is put forward in a very clear, straightfor-ward and forceful way. It only remains for materialists to see and acknowl-edge the collapse of the entire material world in which they blindly believeand on which they rely.

Materialist thought has always existed throughout the history ofhumanity. Being very assured of themselves and the philosophy theybelieved in, materialists ignorantly revolted against Allah Who createdthem. The irrational and unscientific scenario they formulated maintainedthat matter has no beginning or end, and that none of its forms could possi-bly have a Creator. (Surely Allah is beyond that.) Because of their arrogance,they denied Allah and took refuge in the lie that matter was the absoluteentity. They were so confident in this philosophy that they thought that itwould never be possible to put forward an explanation proving the con-trary.

That is why the facts as set forth in this book regarding the real natureof matter surprised these people to such a degree. What has been explainedhere has destroyed the very basis of their philosophy and left no ground forfurther discussion. Matter, upon which they based all their thoughts, lives,arrogance and denial, vanished all of a sudden.

One of the attributes of Allah is His plotting against the unbelievers.This is stated in the verse: "They plot and plan, but Allah too plans; andAllah is the best of planners." (Surat al- Anfal, 30)

Allah entrapped materialists by making them assume that they dealwith the original of matter and, in so doing, humiliated them in hidden ways.Materialists deemed they knew the originals of their possessions, status,rank, the society to which they belonged, the whole world and everythingelse, of which they actually had an experience of only the copies, and igno-rantly grew arrogant toward Allah in their reliance on these things. Display-ing the greatest unreason, they revolted against Allah by being boastful,thereby taking their unbelief to extremes. While so doing, they totally reliedon matter. Yet, they were so lacking in understanding that they failed tothink that Allah totally encompasses them. Allah announces the state towhich the unbelievers are led as a result of their thick-headedness:

Or do they intend a plot (against you)? But those who defy Allah shallthemselves be ruined! (Surat at-Tur, 42)

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This is most probably the biggest defeat inhistory. As they grew more arrogant, material-

ists were tricked and suffered a serious defeat inthe struggle they attempted to wage against

Allah by bringing up something monstrous againstHim. The verse: "Thus have We placed leaders in every

town, its wicked men, to plot therein: but they only plotagainst their own souls, and they do not perceive it," indi-

cates how lacking in awareness these people who ignorantlyrevolt against our Creator are, and what their fate will be. (Surat

al- An'am: 123). In another verse the same fact is related:

Fain would they deceive Allah and those who believe, but they onlydeceive themselves, and do not realise it! (Surat al-Baqarah, 9)

While the unbelievers try to plot, they do not realise a very importantfact, which is stressed by the words "they only deceive themselves, and donot realise it!". This is the fact that everything they experience is a piece ofcopy image they deal with in their minds, and they have experience of thecopies of all the plots they devise in their brains just like every other act theyperform. Their folly has made them forget that they are all alone with Allahand, are thus entrapped in their own devious plans.

No less than those unbelievers who lived in the past, those living todayface a reality that will shake their devious plans to their very foundations.With the statement that "…feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan" (Suratan-Nisa, 76), Allah says that these plots were doomed to end with failure theday they were hatched. He gives good tidings to believers with the assertionthat "…not the least harm will their cunning do you." (Surat 'Ali Imran, 120)

In another verse Allah says: "As for the unbelievers, their deeds arelike a mirage in sandy deserts, which the man parched with thirst mis-takes for water; until when he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing."(Surat an-Nur, 39). Materialism, too, becomes a "mirage" for the rebellious,just as stated in this verse; when they have recourse to it, they find it to benothing but an illusion. Allah has deceived them with such a mirage, andshown them this whole collection of images as if they experienced theiroriginals. All those professors, astronomers, biologists, physicists, and allothers regardless of their rank and position are simply deceived like chil-dren, and are humiliated because they unwisely took matter as their god.

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(Surely Allah is beyond that.) Assumingthe copy images they see in their brains tobe absolute, they based their philosophyand ideology on it, became involved in seri-ous discussions, and indulged in so-called "intel-lectual" discourse. They deemed themselves wiseenough to offer an argument about the truth of the uni-verse and, more importantly, to imagine vain thoughtsabout Allah with their limited intelligence. Allah explainstheir situation in the following verse:

And (the unbelievers) plotted and planned, and Allah tooplanned, and the best of planners is Allah. (Surah Al 'Imran )

It may be possible to escape from some plots; however, this plan ofAllah against the unbelievers is so foolproof that there is no way of escapefrom it. No matter what they do or to whom they appeal, they can neverfind a helper other than Allah. As Allah declares in the Qur'an, "they shallnot find for them other than Allah a patron or a helper." (Surat an-Nisa,173)

Materialists never expected to fall into such a trap. Having all themeans of the 20th century at their disposal, they thought they could remainobdurate in their denial and coerce people into disbelief. In the Qur'an,Allah thus describes this unremittingly stubborn mentality of the unbeliev-ers and their end:

They plotted and planned, but We too planned, and they did not perceiveit. Then see what was the end of their plot! This, that We destroyed themand their people, all (of them). (Surat an-Naml, 50-51)

This, on another level, is what the verses come to mean: materialists aremade to realise that they have experience of only the copies in their brains ofeverything they own, and therefore everything they possess has beendestroyed. As they witness their possessions, factories, gold, dollars, chil-dren, spouses, friends, rank and status, and even their own bodies, the orig-inals of all of which they deem to know, slipping out of their reach, they are"destroyed" in a sense. At this point, they are no longer material entities butsouls.

No doubt, realising this truth is the worst possible situation for materi-alists. This is tantamount, in their own words, to "death before dying" in this

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world. With the verse, "Leave Me alone, (to deal) with the (creature) whom I

created (bare and) alone", Allah reveals the fact that each human being is, intruth, all alone in His presence. (Surat al- Muddaththir, 11). This remarkablefact is repeated in many other verses:

And behold! You come to us bare and alone as We created you for the firsttime: you have left behind you all (the favours) which We bestowed onyou… (Surat al-An'am, 94)

And each one of them will come to Him on the Day of Resurrection, alone.(Surah Maryam, 95)

This, on another level, is what the verses indicate: those who ignorant-ly take matter as their god (surely Allah is beyond that) have neverthelesscome from Allah and must return to Him. They must submit their wills toAllah whether they want to or not. Now they must wait for the Day ofJudgement when every one of them will be called to account, howeverunwilling they may be to acknowledge this.

ConclusionThe subject we have explained so far is one of the greatest truths that

will ever be told to you in your lifetime. Proving that we never have directexperience of the original of matter, this subject is the key to comprehendingthe existence of and creation by Allah, and to understanding that He is theonly absolute being.

The person who understands this subject realises that the world is notthe sort of place it is surmised by most people to be. The world is not anabsolute place, of which we know the original, as supposed by those whowander aimlessly about in the streets, who get into fights in pubs, whoshow off in luxurious cafes, who brag about their property, or who dedicatetheir lives to hollow aims. All our knowledge of the world consists of copyimages we see in our brains. All of the people we have cited above are onlyshadow beings who watch these copy images in their minds: yet they arenot aware of this.

This concept is very important, for it undermines and demolishes thematerialist philosophy that denies the existence of Allah. This is the reasonwhy materialists like Marx, Engels, and Lenin felt panic, became enraged,and warned their followers "not to think over" this concept when they were

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told about it. As a matter of fact, such people are in such a state of mentaldeficiency that they cannot even comprehend the fact that perceptions areformed inside the brain. They assume that the world they watch in theirbrains is the "original external world" and they cannot comprehend theobvious evidence to the contrary.

This unawareness is the outcome of the lack of wisdom given to disbe-lievers by Allah. As Allah reveals in the Qur'an, the unbelievers "havehearts with which they do not understand, eyes with which they do notsee, and ears with which they do not hear. They are like cattle—nay moremisguided: for they are heedless (of warning)." (Surat al-Araf, 179)

In the age in which we live, this fact has been empirically proven by thebody of evidence put forward by science. The fact that we do not experiencethe original of the universe is described in such a concrete, clear, and explic-it way for the first time in history.

For this reason, the 21st century will be a historical-turning pointwhen people will generally comprehend the divine realities and be led incrowds to Allah, the only Absolute Being. In the 21st century, the twistedmaterialistic creeds of the 19th century will be relegated to the trash-heapsof history, Allah's existence and creation will be grasped, such facts asspacelessness and timelessness will be understood, and humanity willbreak free of the centuries-old veils, deceits and superstitions enshroudingthe truth.

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Relativity of Time and

the Reality of Destiny


The foregoing arguments demonstrate that we can never have directexperience of the outside world, that we only know matter as itexists inside our brains and that one leads one's whole life in

"spacelessness". To assert the contrary would be to hold a superstitiousbelief removed from reason and scientific truth, for the things set out hereare all technical and scientific facts even described in middle school text-books.

This fact refutes the primary assumption of the materialist philosophythat underlies evolutionary theory. This is the assumption that matter isabsolute and eternal. The second assumption upon which the materialisticphilosophy rests is the supposition that time is absolute and eternal. This isas superstitious as the first one.

The Perception of TimeThe perception we call time is, in fact, a method by which one moment

is compared to another. We can explain this with an example. For instance,when a person taps an object, he hears a particular sound. When he taps thesame object five minutes later, he hears another sound. He then perceivesthat there is an interval between the first sound and the second, and he callsthis interval "time." Yet at the time he hears the second sound, the firstsound he heard is no more than a bit of information in his memory. The per-son formulates the perception of "time" by comparing the moment inwhich he lives with what he has stored in his memory. If this comparisonis not made, neither can there be perception of time.

Similarly, a person makes a comparison when he sees someone enter-ing a room through its door and sitting in an armchair in the middle of theroom. By the time this person sits in the armchair, the images related to themoments he opens the door, walks into the room, and makes his way to the

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armchair have been compiled as bits of information in the brain. The per-ception of time occurs when one compares the man sitting in the armchairwith those bits of stored information.

In brief, time comes to exist as a result of the comparison madebetween a number of illusions stored in the brain. If man had not hadmemory, his brain would not have made such interpretations and thereforethe perception of time would never have been formed. The reason why onedetermines himself to be thirty years old is only because he has accumulat-ed information pertaining to those thirty years in his mind. If his memorydid not exist, he would not be thinking of the existence of such a precedingperiod of time and he would only experience the single "moment" he wasliving in.

The Scientific Explanation of TimelessnessLet us try to clarify the subject by quoting explanations by various sci-

entists and scholars on the subject. Regarding the subject of time flowingbackwards, the famous intellectual and Nobel laureate professor of genetics,François Jacob, states the following in his book Le Jeu des Possibles (The Pos-sible and the Actual):

Films played backward, make it possible for us to imagine a world in whichtime flows backwards. A world in which milk separates itself from the cof-fee and jumps out of the cup to reach the milk-pan; a world in which lightrays are emitted from the walls to be collected in a trap (gravity center)instead of gushing out from a light source; a world in which a stone slopes tothe palm of a man by the astonishing cooperation of innumerable drops ofwater making it possible for the stone to jump out of water. Yet, in such aworld in which time has such opposite features, the processes of our brainand the way our memory compiles information, would similarly be func-tioning backwards. The same is true for the past and future and the worldwill appear to us exactly as it currently appears.213

Since our brain is accustomed to a certain sequence of events, theworld operates not as it is related above and we assume that time alwaysflows forward. However, this is a decision reached in the brain and there-fore is completely relative. In reality, we can never know how time flows oreven whether it flows or not. This is an indication of the fact that time is notan absolute fact but just a sort of perception.

The relativity of time is a fact also verified by the most important

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physicist of the 20th century, Albert Einstein. Lincoln Barnett, writes in hisbook The Universe and Dr. Einstein:

Along with absolute space, Einstein discarded the concept of absolute time— of a steady, unvarying inexorable universal time flow, streaming from theinfinite past to the infinite future. Much of the obscurity that has surroundedthe Theory of Relativity stems from man's reluctance to recognize that asense of time, like sense of colour, is a form of perception. Just as space issimply a possible order of material objects, so time is simply a possibleorder of events. The subjectivity of time is best explained in Einstein's ownwords. "The experiences of an individual," he says, "appear to us arranged ina series of events; in this series the single events which we rememberappear to be ordered according to the criterion of 'earlier" and 'later'. Thereexists, therefore, for the individual, an I-time, or subjective time. This initself is not measurable. I can, indeed, associate numbers with the events, insuch a way that a greater number is associated with the later event than withan earlier one."214

Einstein himself pointed out, as quoted from Barnett's book, that"space and time are forms of intuition, which can no more be divorced

The past is composed of

information given to a per-

son's memory. If a memory

is erased, her past is also.

The future is composed of

ideas. Without them, only

the present moment of

experience remains.

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Because every event is shown to us in a definite series, we think that time always moves forward. For

example, a skier always skies down a mountain, not up it. A drop of water does not rise up from a pool,

but always falls down into it. In this situation, a skier's position on a mountain is in the past, while his

position down the mountain is the future. However, if the information in our memories were to be dis-

played in reverse, as we would rewind a film, what is for us the future, that is the downhill position,

would be the past and the past, that is the uphill position, would be the future.

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from consciousness than can our concepts of colour, shape, or size."According to the Theory of General Relativity, "time has no independentexistence apart from the order of events by which we measure it."215

Since time consists of perception, it depends entirely on the perceiverand is therefore relative.

The speed at which time flows differs according to the references weuse to measure it, because there is no natural clock in the human body toindicate precisely how fast time passes. As Lincoln Barnett wrote: "Just asthere is no such thing as colour without an eye to discern it, so an instant oran hour or a day is nothing without an event to mark it."216

The relativity of time is plainly experienced in dreams. Although whatwe see in our dream seems to last for hours, it in fact, lasts for only a fewminutes, or even a few seconds.

Let us take an example to further clarify the subject. Imagine that, for acertain unspecified period of time, we are locked up in a room with a single,specially designed window from which we can see the setting and rising ofthe sun, and that we have a clock by which to judge the passage of time. A fewdays later, our estimate of the time spent in the room will be based on ourperiodic clock – watching and our noting of how often the sun rose and set. Atthe end of our period of confinement, we come to the conclusion that we havespent three days in the room. But then our "captor" reveals that in reality ifwas only two days. The reason? The "sun" we had been observing had beenartificially projected by a simulation machine and our clock had been regulat-ed to run faster than normal. So our calculations had no meaning.

This example confirms that the information we have about the rate ofthe passage of time is based on relative references. The relativity of time is ascientific fact also proven by scientific methodology. Einstein's Theory ofGeneral Relativity maintains that the speed of time changes depending onthe speed of the object and its distance from the centre of gravity. As speedincreases, time is shortened, compressed; and slows down as if coming tothe point of "stopping".

Let us explain this with an example given by Einstein himself. Imaginetwins, one of whom stays on earth while the other goes travelling in space ata speed close to the speed of light. When he comes back, the traveller willsee that his brother has grown much older than he has. The reason is thattime flows much more slowly for the person who travels at speeds near thespeed of light. Similarly, in the case of a space-travelling father and his

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earth-bound son, if the father was 27 years old when he set out and his son3, when the father comes back to the earth 30 years later (earth time), the sonwill be 33 years old, but his father will be only 30.217

It should be pointed out that this relativity of time is caused not by theslowing down or running fast of clocks or the slow running of a mechanicalspring. It is rather the result of the differentiated operation periods of theentire material system, which goes as deep as sub-atomic particles. In otherwords, for the person experiencing it, the shortening of time is not like act-ing in a slow-motion picture. In such a setting where time shortens, one'sheartbeats, cell replications, and brain functions, and so on, all operate moreslowly than those of the slower-moving person on Earth, who goes on withhis daily life and does not notice the shortening of time at all. Indeed theshortening does not even become apparent until the comparison is made.

Relativity in the Qur'anThe conclusion to which we are led by the findings of modern science

is that time is not an absolute fact as supposed by materialists, but only arelative perception. What is more interesting is that this fact, undiscovereduntil the 20th century by science, was imparted to mankind in the Qur'an 14centuries ago. There are various references in the Qur'an to the relativity oftime.

The scientifically-proven fact that time is a psychological perceptiondependent on events, setting, and conditions is underscored in many versesof the Qur'an. For instance, as started in the Qur'an, the entire life of a per-son spans a very short time:

On that Day He will call you, and you will answer (His Call) with (wordsof) His Praise and Obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (inthis world) but a little while! (Surat al-Isra, 52)

And on the Day when He shall gather them together, (it will seem to them)as if they had not tarried (on earth) longer than an hour of a day: they willrecognise each other. (Surah Yunus, 45)

In some verses, it is indicated that people perceive time differently andthat sometimes people can perceive a very short period of time as a verylengthy one. The following conversation of people held during their judge-ment in the Hereafter is a good example of this:

He will say: "What number of years did you stay on earth?" They will say:

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"We stayed a day or part of a day: but ask those who keep account." He willsay: "You, stayed for only a little while – if you had only known!" (Surat al-Mumenoon, 112-114)

In some other verses it is stated that time may flow at different paces in

different settings:

Yet they ask you to hasten on the Punishment! But Allah will not fail inHis Promise. Truly, a day in the sight of your Lord is like a thousand yearsof your reckoning. (Surat al-Hajj, 47)

The angels and the spirit ascend to him in a day the measure of which islike fifty thousand years. (Surat al-Maarij, 4)

These verses are all manifest expressions of the relativity of time. The

fact that this result, only recently understood by science in the 20th century,

One twin sister takes a

space trip at a speed close

to the speed of light. When

she returns thirty years

later, the sister who stayed

on the earth will be much

older compared to the sister

who went into space.



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was communicated to man 1,400 years ago by the Qur'an is an indication ofthe revelation of the Qur'an by Allah, Who encompasses the whole of timeand space.

Many other verses of the Qur'an reveal that time is a perception. This isparticularly evident in the stories. For instance, Allah has kept the Compan-ions of the Cave, a believing group mentioned in the Qur'an, in a deep sleepfor more than three centuries. When they were awoken, these peoplethought that they had stayed in that state but a little while, and could notreckon how long they slept:

Then We drew (a veil) over their ears, for a number of years, in the Cave,(so that they could not hear). Then We wakened them up so that We mightknow which of the two parties would best calculate the time that they hadtarried. (Surat al-Kahf, 11-12)

Such (being their state), we roused them (from sleep), so that they mightquestion each other. Said one of them, "How long have you stayed (here)?"They said, "We have stayed (perhaps) a day, or part of a day." (At length)they (all) said, "Allah (alone) knows best how long you have stayed here....(Surat al-Kahf, 19)

The situation described in the verse below is also evidence that time isin truth a psychological perception.

Or (take) the instance of one who passing by a hamlet, all in ruins andquite desolate, said: "Oh! how shall Allah (ever) bring it to life, now that itis dead?" Therefore, Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, thenbrought him back to life. Allah asked: "How long did you tarry (thus)?" Hesaid: (Perhaps) a day or part of a day." He said: "No, you have tarried thus ahundred years; but look at your food and your drink; they show no signs ofa*ge; and look at your donkey: And so that We may make you a sign to thepeople, look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothethem with flesh." When this was shown clearly to him, he said: "I knowthat Allah has power over all things." (Surat al-Baqara, 259)

The above verse clearly emphasises that Allah, Who created time, isunbound by it. Man, on the other hand, is bound by time: that is ordainedby Allah. As in the verse, man is even incapable of knowing how long heremained asleep. This being so, to assert that time is absolute (just as thematerialists do because of their distorted mentality), would be very unrea-sonable.

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The Relativity of Time Explains

The Reality of Destiny

As we see from the account of the relativity of time and the verses thatrefer to it, time is not a concrete concept, but one that varies depending onperceptions. For example, a space of time conceived by us as millions ofyears long is one moment in Allah's Sight. A period of 50 thousand years forus is only a day for Gabriel and the angels.

This reality is very important for an understanding of the idea of des-tiny. Destiny is the idea that Allah created every single event, past, present,and future in "a single moment". This means that every event, from the cre-ation of the universe until doomsday, has already occurred and ended inAllah's Sight. A significant number of people cannot grasp the reality of des-tiny. They cannot understand how Allah can know events that have not yethappened, or how past and future events have already happened in Allah'sSight. From our point of view, things that have not happened are eventswhich have not occurred. This is because we live our lives in relation to thetime that Allah has created, and we could not know anything without theinformation in our memories. Because we dwell in the testing place of thisworld, Allah has not given us memories of the things we call "future"events. Consequently, we cannot know what the future holds. But Allah isnot bound to time or space; it is He Who has already created all these thingsfrom nothing. For this reason, past, present and future are all the same toAllah. From His point of view, everything has already occurred; He doesnot need to wait to see the result of an action. The beginning and the end ofan event are both experienced in His Sight in a single moment. For example,Allah already knew what kind of end awaited Pharaoh even before sendingMoses to him, even before Moses was born and even before Egypt became akingdom; and all these events including the end of Pharaoh were experi-enced in a single moment in the Sight of Allah. Besides, for Allah there is nosuch thing as remembering the past; past and future are always present toAllah; everything exists in His Sight in the same moment.

If we think of our life as a filmstrip, we watch it as if we were viewinga videocassette with no possibility to speed up the film. But Allah sees thewhole film all at once at the same moment; it is He Who created it and deter-mined all its details. As we are able to see the beginning, middle and end of

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a ruler all at once, so Allah encompasses in one moment, from beginning toend, the time to which we are subject. However, human beings experiencethese events only when the time comes to witness the destiny that Allah hascreated for them. This is the way it is for the destinies of everyone in theworld. The lives of everyone who has ever been created and whoever willbe created, in this world and the next, are present in the Sight of Allah in alltheir details. The written destinies of all living things-planets, plants andthings-are existing together with the destinies of millions of human beingsin Allah's eternal memory. They will remain without being lost or dimin-ished. The reality of destiny is one of the manifestations of Allah's eternalgreatness, power, might and His name The Preserver (al-Hafiz).

The Concept of "Past" Comes from

Information in Our Memories

Because of suggestions we receive, we think we live in separate divi-sions of time called past, present and future. However, the only reason wehave a concept of "past" (as we explained earlier) is that various things havebeen placed in our memories. For example, the moment we enrolled in pri-mary school is a bit of information in our memory and we perceive it there-fore as an event in the past. However, future events are not in our memories.Therefore, we regard these things that we do not yet know about as thingsthat will be experienced or happen in the future. But just as the past hasbeen experienced from our point of view, so has the future. But, becausethese events have not been given to our memories, we cannot know them.

If Allah puts future events into our memories, then, the future wouldbe the past for us. For example, a thirty year old person has thirty years ofmemories and events in his memory and, for this reason, thinks he has athirty year past. If future events between the ages of thirty and seventy wereto be put into this person's memory, then, for this thirty year old individual,both his thirty years and the "future" between the ages of thirty and seventy,would become the past. In this situation past and future would be present inthe memory, and each one would be lived experiences for him.

Because Allah has made us perceive events in a definite series, as ifthere were a time moving from past to future, He does not inform us of ourfuture or give this information to our memories. The future is not in our

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The Prophet Moses (pbuh)

and his people are fleeing

through the divided sea

now and being saved.

Pharaoh and his army are

being covered by the sea

now and being drowned.

The Prophet Noah (pbuh)'s

ark and The Prophet

Solomon (pbuh)'s temple

are being built now. All

these things are now pre-

sent in Allah's memory,

much more vividly and

clearly than we can know.

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memories, but all human pasts and futures are in His eternal memory. This,as we said before, is like observing a human life as if it were already whollydepicted and completed in a film. A person cannot advance the film andsees his life as the frames pass one by one. He is mistaken in thinking thatthe frames he has not yet seen constitute the future.

Past And Future Are News Of The Unseen

In the verses, Allah reveals that the only One Who knows what issecret, invisible, unseen and unknown is He Himself:

Say: "O Allah, Originator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of theUnseen and the Visible, You will judge between Your servants regardingwhat they differed about." (Surat az-Zumar: 46)Say: "Death, from which you are fleeing, will certainly catch up with you.Then you will be returned to the Knower of the Unseen and the Visibleand He will inform you about what you did." (Surat al-Jumu'a: 8)He said, "Adam, tell them their names." When he had told them theirnames, He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the Unseen of the heavensand the earth, and I know what you make known and what you hide?"(Surat al-Baqara: 33)

Generally, the word "secret" is thought to refer only to somethingunknown about the future; however, both the past and the future are secret.Those who have lived in the past and those who will live in the future arekept in Allah's Sight. However, Allah gives some of the knowledge kept inHis Sight to the memories of people and makes it known. For example,when Allah gave knowledge concerning the past in the Koran, He told theProphet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) that thiswas news of the unseen:

That is some of the news of the Unseen which We reveal to you. Neitheryou nor your people knew it before this time. So be steadfast. The best endresult is for those who do their duty. (Surah Hud: 49)

This is news of the Unseen which We reveal to you. You were not withthem when they decided what to do and devised their scheme. (SurahYusuf: 102)

Allah gave the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and granthim peace) information about some things that had not yet happened whichwas news of the unseen about the future. For example, the taking of Mecca

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(Surat al-Fath: 27) and the victory of the Greeks over the pagans (Surat ar-Rum: 3-4) were revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless himand grant him peace) before they happened. The Prophet's (may Allah blesshim and grant him peace) sayings about the signs of the day of resurrectionand the end times (which were news of the unseen to people of that time)show that Allah taught these things to him.

The Qur'an explains that news of the unseen is given to prophets andsome devout believers. For example, it was revealed to joseph (pbuh) thatthe trap set for him by his brothers will come to nothing (Surah Yusuf: 15),and to the mother of Moses it was revealed that her son would escape thecruelty of Pharaoh and become a prophet. (Surat al-Qasas: 7)

Finally, all that we call past and future is news of the unseen hidden inthe Sight of Allah. Allah gives some of this knowledge to the memories ofthose He chooses, at a time He chooses, thus making them aware of some ofthe unseen. The events which become visible and observable are character-ized by human beings as being past events.

The Importance Of Submission To Destiny

The fact that past and future are already created in Allah's Sight, andthat everything has happened and is present at Allah's Sight, demonstratesa very important truth. Everyone is in complete submission to his destiny.Just as a person cannot change his past, so he cannot change his future,because, like the past, the future has already happened. Everything in thefuture is determined-when and where events will happen, what he will eat,who he will talk to, what he will discuss, how much money he will earn,what diseases he will get, and when, where and how he will die. All thesethings are already in Allah's Sight and already experienced in His infinitememory. But this knowledge is not yet in a person's memory.

Therefore, those who are sorry, upset, outraged and worried about thefuture, are anxious in vain. The future they are so worried and anxiousabout has already happened. And no matter what they do, they cannotchange these things.

At this point it is very important to point out that it is necessary toavoid a mistaken understanding of destiny. Some people misunderstandand think that what is in their destiny will happen anyway so there is noth-

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289The Real Essence of Matter

ing they can do. It is true that everything we experience is determined in ourdestiny. Before we experienced an occurrence, it has been experienced inAllah's Sight and is written in all its details in the Mother of the Book (LawhMahfuz) in Allah's Sight. But Allah gives everyone the sense that he canchange things and make his own choices and decisions. For example, whena person wants to drink some water, he does not say "If it is my destiny Iwill drink", and sit down without making any move. Instead, he gets up,takes a glass and drinks the water. Actually, he drinks a predeterminedamount of water from a predetermined glass. But as he does this, he sensesthat he is acting according to his own desire and will. He senses thisthroughout his life in everything that he does. The difference between a per-son who submits himself to Allah and to the destiny created by Allah, andsomeone who cannot grasp this reality is this: the person who submits him-self to Allah knows that everything he does is according to the will of Allahdespite the sense that he has done it himself. The other person mistakenlyassumes that he has done everything with his own intelligence and power.

For example, when a person who has submitted himself to Allah learnsthat he has contracted a disease, knows that the disease is in his destiny andhe trusts in Allah. He thinks that because Allah has put it in his destiny, itwill certainly bring him great good. But he does not wait without taking anymeasures thinking that if he is destined to get better he will get better. Onthe contrary, he takes all possible precautions; he goes to a doctor, paysattention to his diet and takes medicine. But he does not forget that the effec-tiveness of the doctor, the treatment, the medicine, as well as whether or nothe will get better are all in his destiny. He knows that all this is in Allah'ssublime memory and was present there even before he came into the world.In the Qur'an, Allah reveals that everything that human beings experience iswritten beforehand in a book:

Nothing occurs, either in the earth or in yourselves, without its being in aBook before We make it happen. That is something easy for Allah. That isso that you will not be grieved about the things that may have escaped youor exult about the things that come to you. Allah does not love any vain orboastful man. (Surat al-Hadid: 22-23)

For this reason, anyone who believes in destiny will not be troubled ordespair about things that happen to him. On the contrary, he will have theutmost trust and confidence in his submission to Allah. Allah has deter-

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mined in advance everything that happens to a person; He has commandedthat we not be sorry for the things that happen to us, and be self-satisfied bythe blessings that we receive. The difficulties that human beings experience,together with their wealth and success, is determined by Allah. All thesethings are in the destiny predetermined by our Lord to test human beings.As it is revealed in one verse, "... Allah's command is a pre-ordaineddecree." (Surat al-Ahzab: 38)

In another verse, Allah reveals that "We have created all things in duemeasure." (Surat al-Qamar: 49) Not only human beings but also all thingsanimate and inanimate, the sun, the moon, mountains and trees have theirdestinies determined by Allah. For example, a broken antique vase was bro-ken at the moment determined by its destiny. While it was being made, itwas determined who would use this centuries-old vase, as well as in whichcorner of which house and with which other objects it would stand. Thedesigns on the vase and it colors were determined in advance in its destiny.It was known in Allah's memory on which day, which hour, which minute,by whom and how it would be broken. The first moment the vase wasmade, the first moment it was placed in the window for sale, the firstmoment it was placed in the corner of the house, the moment it was broken

into pieces, in short, every moment in the cen-turies-long life of this vase, was present inAllah's Sight as one single moment. Whereas

Everything has its own appointed destiny. For

example, an antique vase that breaks, does so at

the moment ordained in its destiny. Who will use

this vase, dating back hundreds of years, where it

will stand in his house and what other objects

will stand alongside it are ordained long before it

is even manufactured.

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291The Real Essence of Matter

even though the person who would break the vase was not aware that hewould break it until a moment before it happened, that moment was experi-enced and known in Allah's Sight. For this reason, Allah tells human beingsnot to be sorry for the things that may have escaped them. What haveescaped them escaped in accordance with their destiny, and they cannotchange it. People must learn a lesson from what happens in their destiny,see the purpose and benefits that accrue to them from it. They must alwaysincline themselves toward the endless mercy, compassion and justice of ourLord, Who creates their destiny, and spares and protects His servants.

Those who lead their lives heedless of this important reality are alwaysanxious and fearful. For example, they are very worried about the future oftheir children. They are very concerned about questions such as these: Whatschool will they go to? What profession will they follow? Will they havegood health? What kind of lives will they lead? However, every moment ofa person's life is determined in Allah's Sight, from the time he is a single cellto the time he learns to read and write, from the first answers he gives in auniversity exam to what company he will work in during his life, whatpapers he will sign and how many times he will sign them, where and howhe will die. All of these things are hidden in the memory of Allah. For exam-ple, at this moment, a person is in the fetal stage, at primary school and atthe university. These are all in Allah's memory as one single moment, alongwith the moment he celebrates his thirty-fifth birthday, the first day hebegins his job, the moment when he sees the angels after he dies, themoment when he is buried, and the moment on the Last Day when he willgive an account to Allah.

Consequently, it is pointless to worry and be fearful about a life whoseevery moment has been lived, experienced and is still present in the memo-ry of Allah. No matter how hard a person tries and no matter how anxioushe may be, everyone, his children, spouse, friends and relatives will live thelife that is present at Allah's Sight.

If this is the case, a person of conscience and intelligence who graspsthis reality must submit humbly to Allah and to the destiny He has created.Actually, everyone is already in submission to Allah, created in sub-servience to Him. No matter whether he likes it or not, he lives subservientto the destiny created for him by Allah. A person who denies his destiny is adenier because being a denier is written in his destiny.

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Those who submit themselves willingly to Allah may hope to enjoyAllah's pleasure and mercy and to win paradise; they will live a life of wellbeing in security and happiness both in this world and in the world to come.This is because, for a person who submits himself to Allah, knowing thatthere is nothing better for him than the destiny created for him by Allah,there is nothing to fear or be anxious about. This person will make everyeffort, but he knows that this effort is in his destiny and, no matter what hedoes, he will not have the ability to change what is written in his destiny.

A believer will submit himself to the destiny created by Allah. In theface of what happens to him, he will do his best to understand the purposeof these happenings, take precautions, and make an effort to change thingsfor the better. But he will take comfort in his knowledge that all these thingscome to be according to destiny and that Allah had determined the mostbeneficial things in advance. As an example of this, the Qur'an mentionsmeasures taken by Jacob for the security of his children. In order to make hissons beware of people with evil intentions, Jacob advised his sons to enterthe city by different gates but he reminded them that this would never influ-ence the destiny determined by Allah.

He said, "My sons! You must not enter through a single gate. Go in throughdifferent gates. But I cannot save you from Allah at all, for judgmentcomes from no one but Allah. In Him I put my trust, and let all those whoput their trust, put it in Him alone." (Surah Yusuf: 67)

People may do what they like, but they will never be able to changetheir destiny. This is revealed in this verse:

Then He sent down to you, after the distress, security, restful sleep over-taking a group of you, whereas another group became prey to anxiousthoughts, thinking other than the truth about Allah-thoughts belonging tothe Time of Ignorance-saying, "Do we have any say in the affair at all?"Say, "The affair belongs entirely to Allah." They are concealing thingsinside themselves which they do not disclose to you, saying, "If we hadonly had a say in the affair, none of us would have been killed here in thisplace." Say, "Even if you had been inside your homes, those people forwhom killing was decreed would have gone out to their place of death." Sothat Allah might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in yourhearts. Allah knows the contents of your hearts. (Surah Al 'Imran: 154)

It can be seen in this verse that even if a person runs away from a task

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in the way of Allah in order not to die, if his death is written in his destiny,he will die anyway. Even the ways and methods resorted to in order toescape death are determined in destiny and everyone will experience thosethings that are written in his destiny. And in this verse, Allah reveals tohuman beings that the purpose of the things created in their destiny is totest them and to purify their hearts. In the Qur'an it is said that everyone'sdeath is determined in the Sight of Allah and that the conception of a babyhappens with the permission of Allah.

Allah created you from dust and then from a drop of sperm and then madeyou into pairs. No female becomes pregnant or gives birth except with Hisknowledge. And no living thing lives long or has its life cut short withoutthat being in a Book. That is easy for Allah. (Surah Fatir: 11)

In the verses below it is revealed that everything a person does is writ-ten sentence by sentence and what those in paradise experience are alsothings that have already been experienced. As we said earlier, the real life ofparadise is for us in the future. But the lives of those in paradise, their con-versations and feasting is in Allah's memory at this moment. Before wewere born, the future of humanity in this world and the next had been expe-rienced in Allah's Sight in a moment and is being kept in Allah's memory.

Everything they did is in the Books. Everything is recorded, big or small.The heedful are amid Gardens and Rivers, on seats of honour in the Pres-ence of a Competent Sovereign. (Surat al-Qamar: 52-55)

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We can understand from this way of speaking in the Qur'an that, inAllah's Sight, time is a single moment and for Him there is no past or future.As we see, some events that will be for us in the future, are understood inthe Qur'an as being long passed. This is because both the past and the futureare created by Allah as a single moment. Therefore, an event which is relat-ed to occur in the future, in fact, has already occurred, but, because we can-not understand this, we think of them as future. For example, in the verseswhere the account to be given to Allah by human beings is described, it isunderstood as a long passed event.

And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who areon the earth swoon away, save him whom Allah wills. Then it is blown asecond time, and behold them standing waiting! And the earth shone withthe light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the wit-nesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they arenot wronged. (Surat az-Zumar: 68-69)

Some further examples of this are the following:

And every soul came, along with a driver and a witness. (Surah Qaf: 21)

And the heaven is cloven asunder, so that on that day it is frail. (Surat al-Haqqa: 16)

And because they were patient and constant, He rewarded them with a gar-den and garments of silk. Reclining in the garden on raised thrones, theysaw there neither the sun's excessive heat nor excessive cold. (Surat al-Insan: 12-13)

And Hell is placed in full view for all to see. (Surat an-Nazi'at: 36)

But on this day the believers laugh at the unbelievers. (Surat al-Mutaffifin:34)

And the sinful saw the fire and realized they are going to fall into it andfind no way of escaping from it. (Surat al-Kahf: 53)

In the above verses, the events we are to experience after death aredescribed as finished. This is because Allah is not bound to the relativedimension of time and space as we are. Allah has willed all these events intimelessness; human beings have done them, experienced them all andbrought them to a conclusion. The verse below reveals that every kind ofoccurrence, great and small, happens within the knowledge of Allah and isinscribed in a book.

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295The Real Essence of Matter

You do not engage in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an or do anyaction without Our witnessing you while you are occupied with it. Noteven the smallest speck eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Noris there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book.(Surah Yunus: 61)

The Worry of the MaterialistsThe issues discussed in this chapter, namely the truth underlying mat-

ter, timelessness, and spacelessness, are, of course quite clear. As statedbefore, these issues are in no way any sort of a philosophy or a way ofthought, but crystal-clear, indisputable scientific truths. In addition to theirbeing a technical reality, the rational and logical evidence also admits of noother alternatives on this point: we can know only the version of the uni-verse, with all the matter composing it and all the people living in it, inour brain.

Materialists have a hard time in understanding this issue. For instance,let us return to Politzer's bus example: although Politzer knew that techni-cally he could not step out of his perceptions, he could only admit it for cer-tain cases. That is, for Politzer, events take place in the brain until the buscrash, but as soon as the bus crash takes place, things go out of the brain andgain a physical reality. The logical defect at this point is very clear: Politzerhas made the same mistake as the materialist philosopher Johnson whosaid, "I hit the stone, my foot hurts, therefore it exists" and could not under-stand that the shock felt after bus impact was in fact a mere perception aswell.

The subliminal reason why materialists cannot comprehend this sub-ject is their fear of the fact they will face when they comprehend it. LincolnBarnett writes that this subject has been "discerned" by certain scientists:

Along with philosophers' reduction of all objective reality to a shadow-worldof perceptions, scientists have become aware of the alarming limitations ofman's senses.218

Any reference made to the facts that we do not have direct experienceof the original of matter and that time is a perception arouses great fear in amaterialist, because these are the only notions he relies on as absolute enti-ties. In a sense, he takes these as idols to worship; because he thinks that hehas been created by matter and time (through evolution). (Surely Allah isbeyond that.)

When he feels that he only experiences the perceptions of the universe

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he thinks he is living in, the world, his own body, other people, other mate-rialist philosophers whose ideas he is influenced by, and in short, every-thing, he feels overwhelmed by the horror of it all. Everything he dependson, believes in, and takes recourse to vanishes suddenly. He feels a desper-ateness which he, essentially, will experience on Judgment Day in its realsense as told about the unbelievers in the verse: "That Day they shall open-ly show their submission to Allah; and all their inventions shall leavethem in the lurch." (Surat an-Nahl, 87)

From then on, this materialist tries to convince himself of the lie that hecan reach the original of matter, and makes up "evidence" to this end; he hitsthe wall with his fist, kicks stones, shouts, yells, but can never escape fromthe reality.

Just as they want to dismiss this reality from their minds, they alsowant other people to discard it. They are also aware that if the true nature ofmatter is known by people in general, the primitiveness of their own philos-ophy and the ignorance of their worldview will be exposed for all to see,and there will be no grounds left on which they can rationalise their views.These fears are the reason why they are so disturbed by the fact related here.

Allah states that the fears of the unbelievers will be intensified in thehereafter. On Judgement Day, they will be addressed thus:

Time is a conceptentirely contingenton the perceiver.

While a certain time peri-od seems long for oneperson, it may seem shortfor another. In order tounderstand which one isright, we need sourcessuch as clocks and calen-dars. It is impossible tomake correct judgmentsabout time without them.

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297The Real Essence of Matter

One day We shall gather them all together: We shall say to those whoascribed partners to Us: "Where are the partners whom you invented andtalked about?" (Surat al-Anaam, 22)

Thereupon, unbelievers will bear witness to the disappearance of pos-sessions, children and close circle whom they had assumed to be real andascribed as partners to Allah: "Behold! how they lie against their ownsouls! But the (lie) which they invented will leave them in the lurch."(Surat al-Anaam, 24).

The Gain of BelieversWhile the reality that we do not have direct contact with the original

matter and that time is a perception alarms materialists, just the oppositeholds true for true believers. People of faith become very glad when theyhave perceived the secret behind matter, because this is the key to all ques-tions. With this key, all secrets are unlocked. One comes to easily under-stand many issues that were previously difficult to understand.

As previously stated, the concepts of death, paradise, hell, the hereafterand changing dimensions will be explained, and important questions suchas "Where is Allah?", "What was before Allah?", "Who created Allah?","How long will the life in cemetery last?" "Where are heaven and hell?", and"Where do heaven and hell currently exist?" will be easily answered. Thekind of system by which Allah created the entire universe from nothingnesswill be understood. So much so that, with this secret, the questions of"when", and "where" become meaningless, because there will be no timeand no place left. When spacelessness is comprehended, it will follow thathell, heaven and earth are all actually at the same place. If timelessness isunderstood, it will follow that everything takes place at a single moment:nothing is waited for and time does not go by, because everything hasalready happened and finished.

With this secret uncovered, the world becomes like heaven for abeliever. All distressful, material worries, anxieties, and fears vanish. Theindividual grasps that the entire universe has a single Sovereign, that Hechanges the entire physical world as He pleases and that all he — the believ-er — has to do is to turn to Him. He then submits himself entirely to Allah"to be devoted to His service". (Surah Al 'Imran, 35)

To comprehend this secret is the greatest gain in the world.

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Along with this secret, another very important reality mentioned in theQur'an is unveiled: the fact that "Allah is nearer to man than his jugularvein." (Surah Qaf, 16). As everybody knows, the jugular vein is inside thebody. What could be nearer to a person than his own insides? This is easilyexplained by the reality of spacelessness. This verse can also be much betterunderstood in terms of this concept.

This is the plain truth. It should be well established that there is noother helper and provider for man other than Allah. There is nothing butAllah; He is the only absolute being in Whom one can seek refuge, appeal tofor help, and count on for reward.

Wherever we turn, there is the presence of Allah.


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Evolution propaganda, which has gained acceleration lately, is a se-rious threat to national beliefs and moral values. The Science Re-search Foundation, which is quite aware of this fact, has

undertaken the duty of informing Turkish public about the scientific truthof the matter.

First Conference-IstanbulThe first of the series of international conferences organised by Sci-

ence Research Foundation (SRF) took place in 1998. Entitled "The Collapseof the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of Creation", it was held in Istanbul onApril 4, 1998. The conference, which was a great success, was attended byrecognised experts from around the world and provided a platform onwhich the theory of evolution was for the first time questioned and refutedscientifically in Turkey. People from all segments of Turkish society at-tended the conference, which drew a great deal of attention. Those whocould not find place in the hall followed the conference live from theclosed-circuit television system outside.

The conference included famous speakers from Turkey and fromabroad. Following the speeches of SRF members, which revealed the ulte-rior ideological motives underlying the theory of evolution, a video docu-mentary prepared by SRF was presented.

SRF Conferences:

Activities for Informing the

Public About Evolution


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Dr Duane Gish and Dr Kenneth Cumming, two world-renowned sci-entists from the Institute for Creation Research in the USA are authoritieson biochemistry and paleontology. They demonstrated with substantialproof that the theory of evolution has no validity whatsoever. During theconference, one of the most esteemed Turkish scientists today, Dr CevatBabuna illustrated the miracles in each phase of a human being's creationwith a slide show that shook the "coincidence hypothesis" of evolution toits roots.

Second Conference-IstanbulThe second international conference in the same series was held three

months after the first on July 5, 1998 in Cemal Resit Rey Conference Hallagain in Istanbul. The speakers-six Americans and one Turk-gave talksdemonstrating how Darwinism had been invalidated by modern science.Cemal Resit Rey Conference Hall, with a seating capacity of a thousand,was filled to overflowing by an audience of rapt listeners.

The speakers and their subjects at this conference are summarisedbelow.

Professor Michael P. Girouard: In his speech, "Is it Possible for Life toEmerge by Coincidences?", Michael Girouard, a professor of biology atSouthern Louisiana University, explained through various examples thecomplexity of proteins, the basic units of life, and concluded that theycould only have come into existence as a result of skilled design.

Dr Edward Boudreaux: In his speech, "The Design in Chemistry", Ed-

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ward Boudreaux, a professor of chemistry at the University of New Or-leans, noted that some chemical elements must have been deliberatelyarranged by creation in order for life to exist.

Professor Carl Fliermans: A widely-known scientist in the USA and amicrobiology professor at Indiana University conducting a research on"the neutralisation of chemical wastes by bacteria" supported by the USDepartment of Defence, Carl Fliermans refuted evolutionist claims at themicrobiological level.

Professor Edip Keha: A professor of biochemistry, Edip Keha, was theonly Turkish speaker of the conference. He presented basic information onthe cell and stressed through evidence that the cell could only have comeinto being as a result of perfect creation.

Professor David Menton: A professor of anatomy at Washington Uni-versity, David Menton, in a speech that was accompanied by a very inter-esting computer display, examined the differences between the anatomiesof the feathers of birds and the scales of reptiles, thus proving the invalid-ity of the hypothesis that birds evolved from reptiles.

Professor Duane Gish: Famous evolutionist expert Professor Gish, inhis speech entitled "The Origin of Man", refuted the thesis of man's evolu-tion from apes.

ICR President Professor John Morris: Professor Morris, the presidentof the Institute for Creation Research and a famous geologist, gave aspeech on the ideological and philosophical commitments lying behindevolution. He further explainedthat this theory has been turnedinto a dogma and that its de-fenders believe in Darwinismwith a religious fervour.

Having listened to all thesespeeches, the audience wit-nessed that evolution is a dog-matic belief that is invalidatedby science in all aspects. In addi-tion, the poster exhibition enti-tled "The Collapse of the Theoryof Evolution: The Fact of Cre-

301SRF Conferences

World- renowned Creationist Dr Duane Gish, re-ceiving his SRF plaque from Dr

Nevzat Yalcintas, A member of Turkish Parliament.

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ation" organised by the Science Research Foundation and displayed in thelobby of CRR Conference Hall attracted considerable interest. The exhibi-tion consisted of 35 posters, each highlighting either a basic claim of evolu-tion or a creation evidence.

Third Conference-AnkaraThe third international conference of the series was held on July 12,

1998 at the Sheraton Hotel in Ankara. Participants in the conference-threeAmericans and one Turk-put forward explicit and substantial evidencethat Darwinism has been invalidated by modern science.

Although the conference hall at the Ankara Sheraton Hotel was de-signed to hold an audience of about a thousand, the number of attendeesat the conference exceeded 2,500. Screens were set up outside the confer-ence hall for those who could not find place inside. The poster exhibitionentitled "The Collapse of the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of Creation"held next to the conference hall also attracted considerable attention. At

PROF. DUANE GISH:"The fossil record refutes the evolutionary theory and itdemonstrates that speciesappeared on Earth fullyformed and well designed.This is a concrete evidencefor that they were createdby God."

PROF. DAVID MENTON: "I am examining theanatomical featuresof living things for 30years. What I saw hasalways been the evidence of God's creation."

PROF. EDWARDBOUDREAUX:"The world we livein, and its naturallaws are very pre-cisely set up by theCreator for the benefit of us, hu-mans."

PROF. CARL FLIERMANS: "Modernbiochemistry provesthat organisms are mar-velously designed andthis fact alone provesthe existence of theCreator.""

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Scenes from National Conferences of SRF


Izmir Balikesir

Samsun Kayseri

Giresun Bursa

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the end of the conference, the speakers received a standing ovation, whichproved how much the public craved enlightenment on the scientific reali-ties regarding the evolution deceit and the fact of creation.

Following the success of these international conferences, the ScienceResearch Foundation began organising similar conferences all overTurkey. Between August 98 and end 2005 alone, 2,800 conferences wereheld in Turkey's 72 cities and 150 districts. SRF continues to conduct itsconferences in different parts of the country. Since then SRF has held con-ferences in England, Holland, Switzerland, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia,Singapore, Azerbaijan, the United States and Canada.

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Glory be to You!

We have no knowledge except what

You have taught us. You are

the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.

(Surat al-Baqara, 32)

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1. Cliff, Conner, «Evolution vs. Creationism: InDefense of Scientific Thinking», InternationalSocialist Review (Monthly Magazine Supple-ment to the Militant), November 1980.

2 Ali Demirsoy, Kalı tı m ve Evrim (Inheritanceand Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan PublishingCo., 1984, p. 61.

3 Michael J. Behe, Darwin’s Black Box, NewYork: Free Press, 1996, pp. 232-233.

4 Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, Lon-don: W. W. Norton, 1986, p. 159.

5 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution: Science orMyth? Why Much of What We Teach AboutEvolution is Wrong, Regnery Publishing,2000, pp. 235-236

6 Dan Graves, Science of Faith: Forty-Eight Bi-ographies of Historic Scientists and TheirChristian Faith, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Re-sources.

7 Science, Philosophy, And Religion: A Sympo-sium, 1941, CH.13.

8 Max Planck, Where is Science Going?,

9 H. S. Lipson, «A Physicist’s View of Darwin’sTheory», Evolution Trends in Plants, Vol 2,No. 1, 1988, p. 6.

10 Although Darwin came up with the claimthat his theory was totally independent fromthat of Lamarck’s, he gradually started to relyon Lamarck’s assertions. Especially the 6thand the last edition of The Origin of Speciesis full of examples of Lamarck‘s «inheritanceof acquired traits». See Benjamin Farrington,What Darwin Really Said, New York:Schocken Books, 1966, p. 64.

11Michael Ruse, «Nonliteralist Antievolution»,AAAS Symposium: «The New Antievolution-ism,» February 13, 1993, Boston, MA

12Steven M. Stanley, Macroevolution: Patternand Process, San Francisco: W. H. Freemanand Co. 1979, pp. 35, 159.

13Colin Patterson, «Cladistics», Interview withBrian Leek, Peter Franz, March 4, 1982,BBC.

14Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution: Science orMyth? Why Much of What We Teach AboutEvolution is Wrong, Regnery Publishing,2000, pp. 141-151

15Jerry Coyne, «Not Black and White», a reviewof Michael Majerus’s Melanism: Evolution inAction, Nature, 396 (1988), pp. 35-36

16 Stephen Jay Gould, «The Return of HopefulMonsters», Natural History, Vol 86, July-Au-gust 1977, p. 28.

17 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: AFacsimile of the First Edition, Harvard Uni-versity Press, 1964, p. 189.

18 Ibid, p. 177.19 B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania:

The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1988.20 Warren Weaver, «Genetic Effects of Atomic

Radiation», Science, Vol 123, June 29, 1956,p. 1159.

21 Gordon R. Taylor, The Great Evolution Mys-tery, New York: Harper & Row, 1983, p. 48.

22 Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, Lon-don: River Publishing, 1984, p. 70.

23 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: AFacsimile of the First Edition, Harvard Uni-versity Press, 1964, p. 179.

24 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, Ox-ford University Press, New York, 1998, pp.140, 141, 227.

25 Derek V. Ager, «The Nature of the FossilRecord», Proceedings of the British Geologi-cal Association, Vol 87, 1976, p. 133.

26 Mark Czarnecki, «The Revival of the Cre-ationist Crusade», MacLean’s, January 19,1981, p. 56.

27 R. Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection, MITPress, Cambridge, MA, 1991, p. 45

28 David Raup, «Conflicts Between Darwin andPaleontology», Bulletin, Field Museum ofNatural History, Vol 50, January 1979, p. 24.

29 Richard Monastersky, «Mysteries of the Ori-ent», Discover, April 1993, p. 40.

30 Richard Fortey, «The Cambrian Explosion Ex-ploded?», Science, vol 293, No 5529, 20July 2001, p. 438-439.

31 Ibid.32 Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker,

London: W. W. Norton 1986, p. 229.33 Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, New

York: Pantheon Books, 1983, p. 197.34 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A

Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard Uni-versity Press, 1964, p. 302.


The evolution deceit - [PDF Document] (309)

35 Stefan Bengtson, Nature, Vol. 345, 1990, p.765.

36 The New Animal Phylogeny: Reliability AndImplications, Proc. of Nat. Aca. of Sci., 25April 2000, vol 97, No 9, pp. 4453-4456.

37 Ibid.38 Gerald T. Todd, «Evolution of the Lung and

the Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual Rela-tionship», American Zoologist, Vol 26, No.4, 1980, p. 757.

39 R. L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology andEvolution, New York: W. H. Freeman andCo. 1988, p. 4.

40 Edwin H. Colbert, M. Morales, Evolution ofthe Vertebrates, New York: John Wiley andSons, 1991, p. 99.

41 Jean-Jacques Hublin, The Hamlyn Ency-clopædia of Prehistoric Animals, New York:The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., 1984, p.120.

42 Jacques Millot, «The Coelacanth», ScientificAmerican, Vol 193, December 1955, p. 39.

43 Bilim ve Teknik Magazine, November 1998,No: 372, p. 21.

44 Robert L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontologyand Evolution, New York: W. H. Freemanand Co., 1988, p. 198.

45 Engin Korur, «Gözlerin ve Kanatları n Sı rrı »(The Mystery of the Eyes and the Wings),Bilim ve Teknik, No. 203, October 1984, p.25.

46 Nature, Vol 382, August, 1, 1996, p. 401.47 Carl O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, New

York: John Wiley and Sons, 1961, p. 310.48 L. D. Martin, J. D. Stewart, K. N. Whetstone,

The Auk, Vol 98, 1980, p. 86.49 Ibid, p. 86; L. D. Martin, «Origins of Higher

Groups of Tetrapods», Ithaca, New York:Comstock Publising Association, 1991, pp.485, 540.

50 S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, Zoological Journalof the Linnaean Society, Vol 69, 1985, p.178; A. D. Walker, Geological Magazine,Vol 177, 1980, p. 595.

51 Pat Shipman, «Birds do it... Did Dinosaurs?»,New Scientist, February 1, 1997, p. 31.

52 «Old Bird», Discover, March 21, 1997.53 Ibid.54 Pat Shipman, «Birds Do It... Did Di-

nosaurs?», p. 28.55 Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes of

Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge UniversityPress, 1997, pp. 280-81.

56 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution, RegneryPublishing, 2000, p. 117.

57 Pat Shipman, «Birds Do It... Did Di-nosaurs?», p. 28.

58 Ibid.59 Roger Lewin, «Bones of Mammals, Ances-

tors Fleshed Out», Science, vol 212, June26, 1981, p. 1492.

60 George Gaylord Simpson, Life Before Man,New York: Time-Life Books, 1972, p. 42.

61 R. Eric Lombard, «Review of EvolutionaryPrinciples of the Mammalian Middle Ear,Gerald Fleischer», Evolution, Vol 33, De-cember 1979, p. 1230.

62 David R. Pilbeam, «Rearranging Our FamilyTree», Nature, June 1978, p. 40.

63 Earnest A. Hooton, Up From The Ape, NewYork: McMillan, 1931, p. 332.

64 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christen-dom, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980, p. 59.

65 Stephen Jay Gould, «Smith Woodward’sFolly», New Scientist, February 5, 1979, p.44.

66 Kenneth Oakley, William Le Gros Clark & J.S, «Piltdown», Meydan Larousse, Vol 10, p.133.

67 Stephen Jay Gould, «Smith Woodward’sFolly», New Scientist, April 5, 1979, p. 44.

68 W. K. Gregory, «Hesperopithecus Appar-ently Not An Ape Nor A Man», Science, Vol66, December 1927, p. 579.

69 Philips Verner Bradford, Harvey Blume, OtaBenga: The Pygmy in The Zoo, New York:Delta Books, 1992.

70 David Pilbeam, «Humans Lose an Early An-cestor», Science, April 1982, pp. 6-7.

71 C. C. Swisher III, W. J. Rink, S. C. Antón, H.P. Schwarcz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, Widi-asmoro, «Latest hom*o erectus of Java: Po-tential Contemporaneity with hom*o sapiensin Southeast Asia», Science, Volume 274,Number 5294, Issue of 13 Dec 1996, pp.1870-1874; also see, Jeffrey Kluger, «Not SoExtinct After All: The Primitive hom*o ErectusMay Have Survived Long Enough To Coexist

Notes 307

The evolution deceit - [PDF Document] (310)

With Modern Humans, Time, December 23,1996

72 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower,New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, pp.75-94.

73 Charles E. Oxnard, «The Place of Australop-ithecines in Human Evolution: Grounds forDoubt», Nature, Vol 258, p. 389.

74 Isabelle Bourdial, «Adieu Lucy,» Science etVie, May 1999, no. 980, pp. 52-62.

75 Holly Smith, American Journal of PhysicalAntropology, Vol 94, 1994, pp. 307-325.

76 Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood, Frans Zonn-eveld, «Implication of Early HominidLabryntine Morphology for Evolution ofHuman Bipedal Locomotion», Nature, vol369, June 23, 1994, pp. 645-648.

77 Tim Bromage, New Scientist, vol 133, 1992,pp. 38-41.

78 J. E. Cronin, N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, Y. Rak,«Tempo and Mode in Hominid Evolution»,Nature, Vol 292, 1981, pp. 113-122.

79 C. L. Brace, H. Nelson, N. Korn, M. L. Brace,Atlas of Human Evolution, 2.b. New York:Rinehart and Wilson, 1979.

80 Alan Walker, Scientific American, vol 239(2), 1978, p. 54.

81 Bernard Wood, Mark Collard, «The HumanGenus», Science, vol 284, No 5411, 2 April1999, pp. 65-71.

82 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention,Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992, p. 83.

83 Boyce Rensberger, The Washington Post,November 19, 1984.

84 Ibid.85 Richard Leakey, The Making of Mankind,

London: Sphere Books, 1981, p. 116.86 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention,

Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992. p. 136.87 Pat Shipman, «Doubting Dmanisi», Ameri-

can Scientist, November- December 2000,p. 491.

88 Erik Trinkaus, «Hard Times Among the Nean-derthals», Natural History, vol 87, Decem-ber 1978, p. 10; R. L. Holloway, «TheNeanderthal Brain: What Was Primitive»,American Journal of Physical AnthropologySupplement, Vol 12, 1991, p. 94.

89 Alan Walker, Science, vol 207, 1980, p.1103.

90 A. J. Kelso, Physical Antropology, 1st ed.,New York: J. B. Lipincott Co., 1970, p. 221;M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cam-bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971,p. 272.

91 S. J. Gould, Natural History, Vol 85, 1976, p.30.

92 Time, November 1996.93 L. S. B. Leakey, The Origin of hom*o Sapiens,

ed. F. Borde, Paris: UNESCO, 1972, p. 25-29; L. S. B. Leakey, By the Evidence, NewYork: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.

94 «Is This The Face of Our Past», Discover, De-cember 1997, p. 97-100.

95 A. J. Kelso, Physical Anthropology, 1.b.,1970, pp. 221; M. D. Leakey, OlduvaiGorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge Uni-versity Press, 1971, p. 272.

96 Donald C. Johanson & M. A. Edey, Lucy: TheBeginnings of Humankind, New York: Simon& Schuster, 1981, p. 250.

97 Science News, Vol 115, 1979, pp. 196-197.98 Ian Anderson, New Scientist, Vol 98, 1983,

p. 373.99 Russell H. Tuttle, Natural History, March

1990, pp. 61-64.100Ruth Henke, «Aufrecht aus den Baumen»,

Focus, Vol 39, 1996, p. 178.101 Elaine Morgan, The Scars of Evolution, New

York: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 5.102 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower,

New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, p.19.

103 Robert Locke, «Family Fights», DiscoveringArchaeology, July/August 1999, p. 36-39.

104 Ibid.105 Henry Gee, In Search of Time: Beyond the

Fossil Record to a New History of Life, NewYork, The Free Press, 1999, p. 126-127.

106 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, pp.298-99.

107 «Hoyle on Evolution», Nature, Vol 294, No-vember 12, 1981, p. 105.

108 Ali Demirsoy, Kalı tı m ve Evrim (Inheri-tance and Evolution), Ankara: MeteksanPublishing Co., 1984, p. 64.


The evolution deceit - [PDF Document] (311)

109 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, p.304.

110 Ibid, p. 305.111 J. D. Thomas, Evolution and Faith, Abilene,

TX, ACU Press, 1988. pp. 81-82.112 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide

to the Creation of Life on Earth, New York,Summit Books, 1986. p.127.

113 Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evo-lution from Space, New York, Simon &Schuster, 1984, p. 148.

114 Ibid, p. 130.115 Fabbri Britannica Bilim Ansiklopedisi (Fab-

bri Britannica Science Encyclopaedia), vol2, No 22, p. 519.

116 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin ofLife, California: 1979, p. 14.

117 Stanley Miller, Molecular Evolution of Life:Current Status of the Prebiotic Synthesis ofSmall Molecules, 1986, p. 7.

118 Kevin Mc Kean, Bilim ve Teknik, No 189, p.7.

119 J. P. Ferris, C. T. Chen, «Photochemistry ofMethane, Nitrogen, and Water Mixture As aModel for the Atmosphere of the PrimitiveEarth», Journal of American Chemical Soci-ety, vol 97:11, 1975, p. 2964.

120 «New Evidence on Evolution of Early At-mosphere and Life», Bulletin of the Ameri-can Meteorological Society, vol 63,November 1982, pp. 1328-1330.

121 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin ofLife, California, 1979, p. 25.

122 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, p.325.

123 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin ofLife, California: 1979, p. 25.

124 Ibid.125 S. W. Fox, K. Harada, G. Kramptiz, G.

Mueller, «Chemical Origin of Cells», Chem-ical Engineering News, June 22, 1970, p.80.

126 Frank B. Salisbury, «Doubts about the Mod-ern Synthetic Theory of Evolution», Ameri-can Biology Teacher, September 1971, p.336.

127 Paul Auger, De La Physique Theorique a la

Biologie, 1970, p. 118.128 Francis Crick, Life Itself: It’s Origin and Na-

ture, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1981, p.88.

129 Ali Demirsoy, Kalı tı m ve Evrim (Inheri-tance and Evolution), Ankara: MeteksanPublishing Co., 1984, p. 39.

130 Homer Jacobson, «Information, Reproduc-tion and the Origin of Life», American Sci-entist, January 1955, p. 121.

131 Reinhard Junker & Siegfried Scherer,«Entstehung und Geschichte der Lebewe-sen», Weyel Verlag, 1986, p. 89.

132 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Cri-sis, London: Burnett Books, 1985, p. 351.

133 John Horgan, «In the Beginning», ScientificAmerican, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 119.

134 G.F. Joyce, L. E. Orgel, «Prospects for Un-derstanding the Origin of the RNA World»,In the RNA World, New York: Cold SpringHarbor Laboratory Press, 1993, p. 13.

135 Jacques Monod, Chance and Necessity,New York: 1971, p.143.

136 Leslie E. Orgel, «The Origin of Life on theEarth», Scientific American, October 1994,vol. 271, p. 78.

137 Gordon C. Mills, Dean Kenyon, «The RNAWorld: A Critique», Origins & Design, 17:1,1996

138 Brig Klyce, The RNA World,

139 Chandra Wickramasinghe, Interview inLondon Daily Express, August 14, 1981.

140 Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View,New York, Viking Press, 1980, p.6

141 J. H. Rush, The Dawn of Life, New York,Signet, 1962, p 35

142 Roger Lewin, «A Downward Slope toGreater Diversity», Science, vol. 217,24.9.1982, p. 1239

143 George P. Stravropoulos, «The Frontiers andLimits of Science», American Scientist, vol.65, November-December 1977, p.674

144 Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View,p.55

145 For further info, see: Stephen C. Meyer,«The Origin of Life and the Death of Materi-alism», The Intercollegiate Review, 32, No.2, Spring 1996

Notes 309

The evolution deceit - [PDF Document] (312)

146 Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley &Roger L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life’s Ori-gin: Reassessing Current Theories, 4. edi-tion, Dallas, 1992. chapter 9, p. 134

147 Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers, Order Outof Chaos, New York, Bantam Books, 1984,p. 175

148 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guideto the Creation of Life on Earth, SummitBooks, New York: 1986, p. 207

149 Pierre-P Grassé, Evolution of Living Organ-isms, New York: Academic Press, 1977, p.103.

150 Ibid, p. 107.151 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Ap-

peal to Reason, Boston: Gambit, 1971, p.101.

152 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christen-dom, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980, p.43.

153 Loren C. Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vin-tage Books, 1958, p. 186.

154 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: AFacsimile of the First Edition, Harvard Uni-versity Press, 1964, p. 184.

155 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Ap-peal to Reason, Harvard Common Press,New York: 1971, p. 33.

156 Ibid, p. 36.157 Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vin-

tage Books, 1958. p. 227.158 H. Lisle Gibbs and Peter R. Grant, «Oscil-

lating selection on Darwin’s finches», Na-ture, 327, 1987, pp. 513; For more detailedinformation, please see Jonathan Wells,Icons of Evolution, 2000, pp. 159-175.

159 Dr. Lee Spetner, «Lee Spetner/Edward MaxDialogue: Continuing an exchange with Dr.Edward E. Max», 2001,

160 Ibid.161 Ibid.162 Francisco J. Ayala, «The Mechanisms of

Evolution», Scientific American, Vol. 239,September 1978, p. 64.

163 Dr. Lee Spetner, «Lee Spetner/Edward MaxDialogue: Continuing an exchange with Dr.Edward E. Max», 2001,

164 S. R. Scadding, «Do ‘Vestigial Organs’ Pro-vide Evidence for Evolution?», EvolutionaryTheory, Vol 5, May 1981, p. 173.

165 The Merck Manual of Medical Information,Home edition, New Jersey: Merck & Co.,Inc. The Merck Publishing Group, Rahway,1997.

166 H. Enoch, Creation and Evolution, NewYork: 1966, pp. 18-19.

167 Frank Salisbury, «Doubts About the ModernSynthetic Theory of Evolution», AmericanBiology Teacher, September 1971, p. 338.

168 Dean Kenyon & Percival Davis, Of Pandasand People: The Central Question of Bio-logical Origins, (Dallas: Haughton Publish-ing, 1993), p. 33.

169 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory inCrisis, London, Burnett Books, 1985, p.145.

170 William Fix, The Bone Peddlers: SellingEvolution (New York: Macmillan PublishingCo., 1984), p. 189.

171 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,Thomas Nelson Co., Nashville: 1991, pp.98-99; Percival Davis, Dean Kenyon, OfPandas and People, Haughton PublishingCo., 1990, pp. 35-38.

172 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited,pp. 98-99, 199-202.

173 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory inCrisis, London: Burnett Books, 1985, pp.290-91.

174 Hervé Philippe and Patrick Forterre, «TheRooting of the Universal Tree of Life is NotReliable», Journal of Molecular Evolution,vol 49, 1999, p. 510

175 James Lake, Ravi Jain ve Maria Rivera, «Mixand Match in the Tree of Life», Science, vol.283, 1999, p. 2027

176 Carl Woese, «The Universel Ancestor», Pro-ceedings of the National Academy of Sci-ences, USA, 95, (1998) p. 6854

177 Ibid.178 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution, Regnery

Publishing, 2000, p. 51179 G. G. Simpson, W. Beck, An Introduction to

Biology, New York, Harcourt Brace andWorld, 1965, p. 241.

180 Keith S. Thompson, «Ontogeny and Phy-


The evolution deceit - [PDF Document] (313)

logeny Recapitulated», American Scientist,Vol 76, May/June 1988, p. 273.

181 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe:Where Darwin Went Wrong, New York: Tic-knor and Fields 1982, p. 204.

182 Richard Lewontin, «The Demon-HauntedWorld», The New York Review of Books,January 9, 1997, p. 28.

183 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guideto the Creation of Life on Earth, SummitBooks, New York: 1986, p. 207.

184 Hoimar Von Dithfurt, Im Anfang War DerWasserstoff (Secret Night of the Dinosaurs),Vol 2, p. 64.

185 Ali Demirsoy, Kalı tı m ve Evrim (Inheritanceand Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publish-ing Co., 1984, p. 61.

186 Ibid, p. 61.187 Ibid, p. 94.188 Bilim ve Teknik, July 1989, Vol. 22, No.260,

p.59189 Grzimeks Tierleben Vögel 3, Deutscher

Taschen Buch Verlag, Oktober 1993, p.92190 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Nat-

ural History, Collins British BroadcastingCorporation, June 1979, p.236

191 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Nat-ural History, Collins British BroadcastingCorporation, June 1979, p.240

192 «The Structure and Properties of SpiderSilk», Endeavour, January 1986, vol. 10,pp.37-43

193 Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi,pp.185-186

194 WalterMetzner, ~bio/faculty/Metzner.html

195 National Geographic, September 1995,p.98

196 Bilim ve Teknik, January 1990, pp.10-12197 David Attenborough, Life of Birds, Prince-

ton Universitye Press, Princeton-New Jersey,1998, p.47

198 James L.Gould, Carol Grant Gould, Life atthe Edge, W.H.Freeman and Company,1989, pp.130-136

199 David Attenborough, The Private Life ofPlants, Princeton Universitye Press, Prince-ton-New Jersey, 1995, pp.81-83

200 Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians,

Published in the United States by AcademicPress, A Division of Harcourt Brace andCompany, p.35

201 R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Psychologyof Seeing, Oxford University Press Inc.,New York, 1990, p.9

202 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe andDr.Einstein, William Sloane Associate, NewYork, 1948, p.20

203 Orhan Hancerlioglu, Dusunce Tarihi (TheHistory of Thought), Istanbul: Remzi Book-store, 6.ed., 1995 September, p. 447

204 Rita Carter, Mapping the Mind, p. 113205 Muhyiddin Ibn al-’Arabi, Fusus al-Hikam, p.

220206 R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Psychology

of Seeing, Oxford University Press Inc. NewYork, 1990, p.9

207 Ken Wilber, Holographic Paradigm, p. 37208 George Politzer, Principes Fondamentaux de

Philosophie, Editions Sociales, Paris, 1954,p. 65.

209 Orhan Hancerlioglu, Dusunce Tarihi (TheHistory of Thought), Istanbul: Remzi Book-store, 6.ed., 1995 September, p. 261

210 Paul Davies, God and the New Physics,New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983, p. 180-181

211 V.I. Lenin, Materialism and Empiriocriticism,Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970, p.334-335

212 Alaettin Senel, »Evrim Aldatmacasi mi? De-vrin Aldatmacasi mi?«, (Non-Evolution ofDeceit), Bilim ve Utopya, December 1998

213 François Jacob, Le Jeu des Possibles, Univer-sity of Washington Press, 1982, p. 111.

214 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Ein-stein, William Sloane Associate, New York,1948, pp. 39-40.

215 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Ein-stein, p. 12.

216 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Ein-stein, p. 40.

217 Paul Strathern, The Big Idea: Einstein andRelativity, Arrow Books, 1997, p. 57.

218 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Ein-stein, p.12.

Notes 311

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